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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.6

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


labyrinth (lab'i-rinth) [Gr. labyrinthas, maze!.]. Intricate communicating passages to the internal ear consisting of osseous and membranous labyrinths. These structures are essential to maintaining physical equilibrium of the body.
l., bony. L, osseous.
l., ethmoidal. The lateral mass of the ethmoid bone. Includes the superior and middle conchae and encloses the ethrnoidal air ce1!s. SYN: L., olfactory.
l., membranous. Structure in osseous labyrinth consisting of utricle and saccule of vestibule, three semicircular ducts, and the cochlea duct. All are filled with endolymph,
l., olfactory. L,., ethmoidal.
l., osseous. Consists of vestibule, three semicircular canals, and cochlea, channeled out of the petrous portion of the temporal bone. Syn: L, bony.

labyrinthectomy (lab-i-rin-thek' to-me) [+ektome, excision]. Excision of the labyrinth

lacuna (la-ku'na) [L., a pit]. (pl. laci [NA] 1. A small hollow space, such as found in bones, in which lie the osteoblasts. 2. A gap or hiatus found in cartilage, cementum, or bone in which lie chondrocyte mentocytes, or osteocytes.
L, absorption. A resorption space low on the surface of bone, cementui dentin,,occupied by a multinucleated cell called an osteoclast or odontoclast. SEE: Homship's lacunae.
L, bone. One of the isolated ovoid spaces between osseous lamellae, connected by canaliculi, containing a protoplasmic body or bone cell.
Howship's. A pit or groove in bone where resorption or dissolution of bone is occurring. Usually contains osteoclasts. SYN: l., absorption.
L,vasorum. [NA] Space for passage of femoral vessels to the thigh.

lamella (la-mela) [L., a little plate]. (pl. lamellae) 1. A thin plate or scale. L, bone. Thin layer of ground substance of osseous tissue. L, circumferential. Layer of bone that underlies the periosteum. L, concentric. Plate of bone surrounding a haversian canal. L, medullary. Osseous lamella surrounding and forming the wall of the medullary cavity of tubular bones. L, periosteal. Bone lamella next to and parallel with the periosteum, forming the external portion of bone.

lamellar (la-mel'ar). 1. Arranged in thin plates or scales. 2. Pert. to lamella.

lameness. Limping, abnormal gait, or hobbling resulting from partial loss of function in a leg. May be due to maldevelopment, injury, or disease.

lamina (lam'i-nn) [L.]. (pl. laminae) [NA] 1. A thin flat layer or membrane. 2. The flattened part of either side of the arch of a vertebra.
l., alar. Alarplate of the spinal cord in the human embryo; later becomes the sensory Portion.
l., basal. 1. Basal plate of spinal cord in the human embryo; later becomes the motor portion. 2. A mucopolysaccharide layer on the basal surface of epithelial cells which separates them functionally from the underlying connective tissue of the body.
l., cartilaginiscricoideae. [NA] The posterior portion of the cricoid cartilage.
l. of vertebral arch. Laminae extending from the pedicles of the vertebral arches and fusing together to form the dorsal portion of the arch. The spinous process extends from the center of these laminae.

laminagram (lam'i-na-gram) [L. lamina, thin plate, + Gr. gramma, something written]. A roentgenogram taken of a section of the body so that the area being investigated appears as if only a slice through the tissue is depicted.

laminectomy, (lam"i-nek'to-me) [" + Gr. ektome, excision]. Excision of a vertebral posterior arch.

Landry's paralysis (16n-drez'). [Jean Baptiste O. Landry, Fr. neurologist, 1826-1865] Acute febrile polyneuritis. A disease of unknown etiology but thought to have an autoimmune basis. Onset is usually preceded by a history of nonspecific febrile illness. From one to three weeks later, signs and symptoms of multiple nerve involvement develop. Characterized by pain; and weakness that is symmetrical and begins in the extremities, ascends to involve the entire limb, and may involve the trunk and abdominal and thoracic muscles. The muscles of the head and face may be paralyzed bilaterally. Almost all of the patients have some sensory nerve symptoms but these are usually mild. Recovery after a period varying from several weeks or months is the usual outcome. There is no specific therapy. Usually the spinal fluid contains an increased amount of protein but only rarely will the cells in the fluid be increased. This disease has been described by various terms: acute polyneuritis with facial diplegia, acute infectious polyneuritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and neuritis with albuminocytologic dissociation. All are believed to be the same disease.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Assess patient for extent of involvement and paralysis. Note and document swallowing difficulty and signs of respiratory distress. Take appropriate measures if either or both occur. Administer analgesic in accordance with medication orders. Place emergency tracheostomy tray at bedside. Provide passive range of motion exercises three to four times a day to prevent formation of contractures. Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance if swallowing reflex is impaired.

Langer's muscle. Muscular fibers from insertion of pectoralis major muscle, over the bicipital groove to the insertion of the latissimus dorsi.

latissimus (la-tis'i-mus) [L., widest]. Denoting a broad anatomical structure such as a muscle.

Leg [ME.]. One of the two lower extremities. including the femur, tibia, fibula, and patella; specifically the part between the knee and ankle.
, RS: Buerger's disease; calf; crural; crus; saphena; saphenous; sura,, systremma; thrombophlebitis; tibia.
l., badger. Inequality in the length of the legs
l., baker. Genu valgum; knock-knee.
l., bandy.
l., bow-.
l., Barbadoes. Elephantiasis of the legs.
l., bayonet. Uncorrected backward displacement of the knee bones, followed by ankylosis at the joint.
l., bird. Reduction in size of the leg as a result of atrophy of the muscles.
l., boomerang. A disease of the leg bones occurring among Australian natives, causing a curvature of the leg resembling a boomerang.
l., bow-. An outward curving of the legs at the knees. SYN: bandy leg; genu varum.
l., milk. Phlebitis of the femoral vein occasionally following parturition and typhoid fever. It is characterized by swelling of the leg, usually without redness. SYN: phlegmasia alba dolens; white leg.
l., restless. A sense of uneasiness and uncomfortableness of the legs that comes on at bedtime. Moving the legs tends to relieve the condition. This syndrome is sometimes present at the onset of renal colic due to renal calculi.
l., scissor. Crossed-leg deformity, a result of double hip disease, in which the patient walks with the legs swinging across the midline with each step.
Legg's disease (legz). [Arthur T. Legg] Osteochondritis of the upper femoral epiphysis. SYN: Legg-Calve-Perthes disease.

ligament (lig'a-ment) [L. ligamentum, a band]. 1. A band or sheet of strong fibrous connective tissue connecting the articular ends of bones serving to bind them together and to facilitate or limit motion. 2. A thickened portion or fold of peritoneum or mesentery that supports a visceral organ or connects it to another viscus. 3. A band of fibrous connective tissue connecting bones, cartilages, and other structures and serving for support or for attachment of fascia or muscles. 4. A cordlike structure representing the vestigial remains of a fetal blood vessel.
l., accessory. Ligament that supplements another, esp. one on the lateral surace of a joint. One outside of and independent of the capsule of a joint.
l., acromioclavicular. Ligament extending from the clavicle to the acromial - process of the scapula.
l , alar. Ligament connecting the odontoid process of the atlas to the occipital bone. SYN: l., apical.
l, 's, arcuate. The lateral, medial, and exterior ligaments that extend from the 12th rib to the transverse process of the 1st lumbar- vertebra to which the diaphragm is attached.
l's, Carpal. Ligaments uniting the carpal bones.
l., caudal. Bundles of fibrous tissue uniting dorsal surfaces of the two lower coccygeal vertebrae and superjacent skin.
l., check. Ligament that restrains motion of a joint, esp. the lateral odontoid ligaments.
l., conoid. Posterior portion of the coracoclavicular ligament.
l., coracoacromial. Broad triangular ligament attached to the outer edge of the coracoid process of the scapula and the tip of the acromion.
l., Coracoclavicular. Ligament uniting the clavicle and coracoid process of the scapula.
l., coracohumeral. Broad ligament connecting the coracoid process of the scapula to the greater tubercle of the humerus.
l, costotransverse, Ligaments uniting ribs with transverse processes of vertebrae.
l, costotransverse, middle. Ligament consisting of parallel fibers extending between a vertebra and its adjacent rib.
1.'s, costovertebral. .Ligaments uniting the ribs and vertebrae.
l., cruciate. 1. Ligament of the ankle passing transversely across the dorsum of the foot that holds tendons of the anterior muscle group in place.
2. A cross-shaped ligament of the atlas consisting of the transverse ligament and superior and inferior bands, the former passing upwards and attaching to the margin of the foramen magnum, the latter passing downwards and attaching to the body of the atlas.
3. Two ligaments of the knee, the anterior passing from tibia to medial aspect of the lateral condyle of the femur, the posterior passing from the tibia to the lateral aspect of the medial condyle.
l., cruciform. A structure consisting of one ligament crossing another.
l., deltoid. Interior lateral ligament of the ankle.
l., dentate. A fibrous band of pia mater extending the length of the spinal cord on each side between the spinal nerves. It has a scalloped appearance as it pierces the arachnoid to attach to the dura mater at regular intervals.
l., glenoid. Ligament that extends between palmar surfaces of phalanges and corresponding metacarpal bone.
l., iliofemoral. Bundle of fibers forming the upper and anterior portion of the capsular ligament of the hip joint. Ligament that extends from ilium to intertrochanteric line. SYN: Y ligament.
l., iliolumbar. Ligament extending from the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae to iliac crest.
l., inguinal. Ligament extending anterior superior iliac spine to pubic tubercle. Forms lower margin of aponeurosis of exterior oblique muscle. SYN: l., crural + l Poupart's.
L's, meniscofemoral. Two small ligaments of the knee, one anterior and on posterior. The anterior one attaches to the posterior area of the lateral meniscus and the anterior cruciate ligament. The posterior one attaches to the posterior area of the lateral meniscus and the medial condyle of the femur.
l., rhomboid, of clavicle. A strong structure extending from the tuberosity of the clavicle to outer surface of the cartilage of the first rib.
l., round, of femur. Ligament of the head of the femur that is attached to the anterior superior part of the fovea of the head of the femur and to the sides of the acetabular notch.
Ls, sacroiliac. Two ligaments, the anterior and posterior, that connect sacrum and ilium.
l., sacrospinous. Ligament extending from the spine of the ischium to sacrum and coccyx in front of the sacrotuberous ligament.
L, sacrotuberous. Ligament extending from tuberosity of the ischium to posterior superior and inferior iliac spines and to lower part of sacrum and coccyx.
l., supraspinal. Ligament uniting apices of spinous processes of vertebrae.
l., tendinotrochanteric. Ligament that forms a part of the capsule of the hip joint.
l., transverse crural. Ligament lying on anterior surface of leg just above ankle.
l., transverse, of at/as. A strong ligament passing over the odontoid process of the axis.
l., transverse, of hip joint. A ligamentous band extending across cotyloid notch of the acetabulum.