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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.4

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


ganglion (gang-Ie-on) [Gr.]. (pl. ganglia or ganglions)
1. A mass of nervous tissue composed principally of nerve-cell bodies and lying outside the brain or spinal cord. Ex.: the chain of ganglia that form the main sympathetic trunks; the dorsal root ganglion of a spinal nerve.
2. Cystic tumor developing on a tendon or aponeurosis; sometimes occurs on the back of the wrist.
g., cervical. One of the three pairs of ganglia (superior, middle, inferior) located in the neck region. They are the ganglia of the cervical portion of the sympathetic trunk.
g., intervertebral. G., spinal.
g., lumbar. One of the ganglia usually occurring in fours in the lumbar portion of the sympathetic trunk.
g., lymphatic. Lymph nodes.
g., sacral. One of the four small ganglia located in the sacral portion of the sympathetic trunk. They lie on the anterior surface of the sacrum and are connected to the spinal nerves by gray rami.
g., Scarpa's. G., vestibular,
g., semilunar. G., trigeminal,
g., sensory. One of the ganglia of the peripheral nervous system that transmits sensory stimuli.
g., simple. Cystic tumor in a tendon sheath.
g., spinal. Ganglionic enlargement of spinal nerves' dorsal roots. SYN: g., dorsal root.
g., spiral, A long, coiled ganglion in the cochlea of the ear. It contains bipolar cells, the peripheral processes of which terminate in the organ of Corti. The central processes form the cochlear portion of the acoustic nerve and terminate in the cochlear nuclei of the medulla.
g., stellate. Ganglion formed by joining of the inferior cervical ganglion with the first thoracic sympathetic ganglion.
g., sympathetic. One of the ganglia of the thoracolumbar (sympathetic) division of the autonomic nervous -system. Include vertebral or lateral ganglia (those forming the sympathetic trunk) and prevertebral or collateral ganglia, more peripherally located.
g., terminal. Ganglion of the autonomic division of the nervous system that lies close to or within the organ innervated.
g., thoracic. One of 11 or 12 ganglia of the thoracic area of the sympathetic trunk.
g., vestibular. A bilobed ganglion located on the vestibular branch of the acoustic nerve at the base of the internal acoustic meatus. Its peripheral fibers arise in the maculae of the sacculus and utriculus and the cristae of the ampullae of the semicircular ducts.

gene (jen) [Gr, gennan, to produce]. (pl, genes) The basic unit of heredity. Each gene occupies a certain location on a chromosome. They are self-producing, ultramicroscopic structures capable under certain circumstances of giving rise to a new character, such a change being called a mutation. Hereditary traits are controlled by pairs of genes in the same position on a pair of chromosomes. These gene pairs, or alleles, may both be dominant or both be recessive in their expression of that trait. In either of those cases the individual is said to be homozygous for the trait controlled by that gene pair. If the gene pair (alleles) consists of one dominant and one recessive gene, the individual is heterozygous for the trait controlled by that gene pair.

Golgi apparatus (go1,je).1Camillo Golgi, it. histologist, 1844 -1926]. A lamellar membranous structure near the nucleus of almost all cells. It contains curved parallel series of flattened saccules that are often expanded at their ends. The structure is best seen by electron microscopy. In secretory cells the apparatus functions to concentrate and package the secretory product. Its function in other cells, though apparently important, is poorly understood.

Golgi's cells. MultiPolar nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and posterior horns of spinal cord. Type 1 possesses long axons, and Type 11 possesses short axons.

Golgi's corpuscle. A sensory nerve ending or receptor found in tendons or aponeuroses; an end-organ of muscle sense. SYN: organ, Golgi's.

Goll's tract (golz,).[ Friedrich Goll, swiss anatomist, 1829-1904 ] Tract in the posterior white column of the spinal cord. SYN: fasciculus gracilis [NA].

Guillain-Barre syndrome. [G. Guillain, Fr. neurologist, 1876-1961; J.A.Barre, Fr.neurologist, b. 1880]. Polyneuritis with progressive muscular weakness of extremities that may lead to paralysis. Usually occurs after recovery from an infectious disease. It has also occurred as a rare complication of immunization with influenza vaccine. Patients with this syndrome always have a high protein content in their cerebrospinal fluid. Recovery is usually complete if the acute period is uncomplicated. This syndrome has been described by various terms: acute polyneuritis, infectious polyneuritis, acute polyneuropathy, and Landry's paralysis. All are believed to be the same syndrome.


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habilitation (ha-bil"i-ta'shun). The process of education or training persons with disadvantage or disability to improve their ability to function in society. habit [L. habere, habitus, to have, hold]. A motor pattern executed with facility following constant or frequent repetition; an act peformed in a voluntary manner but that after sufficient repetition is performed as a reflex action. Habits result from the passing of impulses through a particular set of neurons and synapses many times. Bodily appearance or constitution, esp. as related to a disease or predisposition to a disease, as the apoplectic habit. SYN: habitus.

habituation. Act of becoming accustomed to anything from frequent use. In drug addiction, the mental equivalent of physical tolerance and dependence on drugs.

hamstring [AS. haum, haunch]. One of the tendons that form the medial and lateral boundaries of the popliteal space.
h. "s, inner. Tendons of the semimembranosus, semitendinosus, and gracilis muscles.
h., outer. Tendon of the biceps femoris. hamstrings. Three muscles on the posterior aspect of the thigh, the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris. They flex the leg and adduct and extend the thigh.

handicap. A mental or physical impairment that prevents or interferes with normal mental or physical activities and achievement. All living organisms have as a basic characteristic being able to attempt to adapt to handicaps. This is particularly true of human beings, some of whom are able to live useful, rewarding, and satisfying lives despite multiple handicaps. SEE: disability.

haversian canal (ha-ver'shan). [Clopton Havers, Brit. physician and anatomist, 1650-1702] Minute vascular canals found in osseous tissue. haversian canaliculi. Delicate canals extending from the lacunae into the matrix of bone. They anastomose with canaliculi of adjacent lacunae, forming a network of fine channels that communicate with haversian and Volkmann's canals. They transmit nutrient materials.
haversian gland. Minute projections from the surface of the synovial tissue into the joint space. SEE: gland, haversian.
haversian system. Architectural unit of bone consisting of a central tube (haversian canal) with alternate layers of intercellular material (matrix) surrounding it in concentric cylinders. Alternating layers of matrix and cells are called haversian lamellae. SEE: bone.

health (helth) [AS. haelth, wholeness]. A condition in which all functions of the body and mind are normally active. The World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, or social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This definition is of limited usefulness when evaluating an individual; and when one asks who determines well-being, the health professional or the individual. Many persons enjoy a state of well-being even though they might be classed as unhealthy by others.

hemiplegia (hem-e-ple'je-a) ["+ plege, a stroke]. I. Paralysis of only one-half of the body. SEE: Benedikt's syndrome; paralysis; thalamic syndrome.
ETIOL: A brain lesion involving the upper motor neurons and resulting in paralysis of the opposite side of the body. May result from disturbed flow to a portion of the brain. This may be due to hemorrhage, cerebral thrombosis, embolism, or tumor of the cerebrum.
F.A.: Elevate head and shoulders. See that tongue does not obstruct breathing. Avoid stimulants. Do not move patient until arrival of someone competent in emergency medical care.
h., spina. Hemiplegia resulting from a lesion of the spinal cord. SEE: Brocun-Sequard's paralysis.

herniated disk. Rupture or herniation of the nucleus pulposes, esp. between lumbar vertebrae. It usually causes pain in the affected side.

herniation (her-ne-a'shim). Development of a hernia.
h. of nucleus pulposus. Prolapse of the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disk into the spinal canal

hip [AS. hype]. 1. Upper part of thigh, formed by the femur and innominate bones. Its three portions are the ilium, ischium, and pubis. SYN: os coxae. 2. The region on each side of the pelvis. SEE: hip joint.
h., congenital dislocation of. A congenital defect of the hip joint that is most probably due to multifactorial effects of several abnormal genes.
h., dislocation of. Dislocation of the hip is very often accompanied by a fracture, and it is extremely difficult even for a well trained surgeon to distinguish a pure dislocation from a fracture dislocation without roentgenography.
SYM: Pain, rigidity, loss of function, and the dislocation may be obvious by the abnormal position in which the leg is held, or by seeing or feeling the head of the femur in an abnormal position.
DIAG: Person has great difficulty in straightening the hip following an accident. It is always accompanied by pain. The knee on the injured side resistantly points inwardly toward the other knee, and it is difficult to straighten the leg.
F.A.: Place the patient on a large splint as for fractured back. In addition, place a large pad, such as a pillow, under the knee of the affected side. Treat for shock if required.
h., dislocation of, backward. Dislocation of the hip onto the dorsum ilii or sciatic notch.
SYM: Inward rotation of thigh, with flexion, inversion, adduction, shortening; pain, tenderness; loss of function and immobility.
TREAT: Patient should be anesthetized. Dorsal position with leg flexed on thigh, and the latter upon the abdomen. Adduct thigh, rotate outward; circumduction outwardly across abdomen, back to straight position. Traction may be required.
h., dislocation of, downward. This type of hip dislocation is rare. TREAT: Traction in flexed position. Outward rotation and extension.
h., dislocation of, forward. Dislocation of the hip through obturator foramen, on pubis, in perineum, or through fractured acetabulum.
SYM: Pain, tenderness, and immobility. Shortening in pubic and suprapubic forms; lengthening in obturator and perineal forms.
TREAT: Hyperextension and direct traction. Flexion, abduction with inward rotations, adduction.
h., snapping. A slipping around of the hip joint, sometimes producing an audible snapping sound.
h., total replacement of. Orthopedic surgical procedure involving total replacement of the head of the femur and the acetabular portion of the hip joint.

hip joint. Articulation between the femur and the innominate bone. A ball and socket (enarthrosis) formed by the head of the femur fitting into a concavity, the acetabulum.

hip-joint disease. Any disease of the hip joint, esp. tuberculosis.

hyperequilibrium (hi-per-e-kwi-lib-re-um) [ + L. aequus, equal, + libra, balance]. Tendency to vertigo when making even slight turning movements.

hypertrophy. (hi-per-tro-fe) [ + trophe, nourishment]. Increase in size of an organ or structure that does not involve tumor formation. Term is generally restricted to an increase in size or bulk not resulting from an increase in number of cells or tissue elements, as in the hypertrophy of a muscle. Term sometimes used to apply to any increase in size as a result of functional activity. SYN: hypertrophia. SEE: hyperplasia.
h.,  pseudomuscular. A disease usually of childhood, characterized by paralysis depending upon degeneration of the muscles, which, however, become enlarged from a deposition of fat and connective tissue. SYM: Weakness of muscle: patient is awkward and stumbles and seeks support in walking. As paralysis increases, the muscles, particularly those of the calf, thigh, buttocks, and back, enlarge. Upper extremities are less frequently affected. When standing erect, the feet are wide apart, the abdomen protrudes, and spinal column shows a marked curvature with convexity forward. Patient rises from recumbent position by grasping the knees or by resting the hands on the floor in front, extending the legs and pushing the body backwards. Gait is waddling. In the course of few years paralysis becomes so marked patient is unable to leave bed. This leads to muscular atrophy. TREAT: Physical therapy helps to prevent contractures, but there is no effective therapy. PROG: Unfavorable.