A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.3
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
E - F
Ear., middle. The tympanic cavity, an irregular air-filled
space in the temporal bone. Anteriorly it communicates with the
eustachian tube, which forms an open channel between the middle ear and
the cavity of the nasopharynx. Posteriorly, the middle ear opens into
the mastoid antrum and this in turn communicates with the mastoid
cells. Of the three openings into the inner ear, two, the tympanic
membrane and the round window, are covered. The third one is to the
eustachian tube. Three ossicles (small bones) joined together extend
from the tympanic membrane to the fenestra vestibuli; these are the
malleus, incus, and stapes.
ear., nerve supply of. External branches of facial, vagus,
and mandibular nerves and from cervical plexus. Middle: tympanic plexus
and branches of mandibular, vagus, and facial nerves. Internal
ergonomics (er-go-nom-iks) [ +
nomikos, law]. The science concerned with how to fit a job to man's
anatomical, physiological, and psychological characteristics in a way
that will enhance human efficiency and well-being.
exercise [L. exercitus, having drilled]. Performed activity of the muscles, voluntary or otherwise, esp. to maintain fitness.
e., active. Form of bodily movement that the patient performs by voluntary contraction and relaxation of muscles.
e., assistive. Form of bodily movement that the patient
performs by voluntary contraction and relaxation of muscles with the
aid of a therapist.
e., blowing. Exercise in which the patient blows into a
tube connected to a bottle containing water. That bottle is attached to
another bottle so that the air pressure produced forces water from the
one into the other. This increases intrabronchial pressure, which tends
to aid in expansion of the lung. It is by this means that obliteration
of an empyema cavity is facilitated. SEE: empyema.
e., Buerger's postural. Exercise used for circulatory disturbances of the extremities.
e., Codman's. A type of gentle active motion of the upper
extremity following immobilization with the purpose of re-establishing
range of motion and function following fracture. SYN: Codman's
e., corrective. Use of specific exercises to correct deficiencies caused by trauma or inactivity.
e., crawling. Exercise devised for treatment of scoliosis, q.v., essentially for children. SEE: patterning.
e., free. Bodily movement that is carried through by patient with no external assistance.
e., isokinetic. Contraction of a muscle during which the force exerted while the muscle shortens is maximal.
e., isometric. Active contraction where the force is exerted against stable resistance, so that muscle length is not shortened.
e., isotonic. Active muscle contraction where the force exerted remains constant and muscle length is decreased.
e. 's, Kegel. SEE: Kegel exercises.
e., muscle-setting. Contracting and relaxing a skeletal
muscle or group of muscles without moving the part or changing the
muscle length. SYN: e., static.
e., passive. Form of bodily movement that is carried through by the therapist without the assistance or resistance of the patient.
e., range of motion. Movements of joints through their
full range of motion. Can be used to prevent loss of this ability or to
regain the full range of motion after an injury or fracture.
e., resistive. Form of supervised bodily movement, with or without apparatus, that offers resistance to muscle action.
e., static. Alternate contraction and relaxation of a
skeletal muscle or group of muscles without movement of the joint. SYN:
e., therapeutic. Scientific supervision of bodily
movement, with or without apparatus, for purpose of restoring normal
function to diseased or injured tissues.
Extension. (eks-ten-shun) [L. extensio] The movement by
which both ends of any part are pulled apart. 1. A movement that
brings members of a limb into or toward a straight condition. Opposite
of flexion. 2. The application of a pull (traction) to a fractured or
dislocated limb. 3. To increase the angle between the bones forming a
e., Buck's. A method of producing traction by applying
adhesive tape or flannel-backed adhesive tape to the skin and keeping
it in smooth close contact by means of circular bandaging of the part
to which it is applied. The adhesive strips are placed along the long
axis of the arm or leg, the superior ends being about 1 in. (2.5 cm)
from the fractured site. Weights sufficient to produce the required
extension are fastened to the inferior end of the adhesive strips by
means of a rope that is run over a pulley to permit free motion.
feedback. The return of some output to the place of origin by the system that receives it.
femur [L.]. (pl. thigh bone. It extends from the hip to
the knee and is the longest and strongest bone in the skeleton. RS:
calcar femorale., cavalry bone; femoral; trochanter.
fibroma (fi-bro-ma) [ + Gr. oma, tumor ]. (pl. fibromata)
A fibrous, encapsulated, connective tissue tumor. It is irregular in
shape, slow in growth, and has a firm consistency. Pressure or cystic
degeneration may cause pain. May be found in the periosteum. May affect
the jaws, the occiput, pelvis, vertebrae, ribs, long bones, and sternum.
fibromatosis (fi-bro-ma-to-sis) [L. fibra, fiber, + Gr.
oma, tumor, + osis, condition]. The simultaneous development of many
fibromas. SYN: fibrosis.
f. palmar. Dupuytren's contracture, q.v.
fibromatous (fi-bro-ma-tus). Pert. to, or of the nature of, a fibroma.
fibromectomy (fi-bro-mek-to-me) [ + Gr. oma, tumor, + ektome, excision]. Removal of a fibroid tumor.
fibromembranous (fi-bro-mem-bra-nus) [+ membrana, web]. Having both fibrous and membranous tissue.
fibromuscular (fi-bro-mus-ku-lar) [ + musculus, muscle]. Consisting of muscle and connective tissue.
fibromyalgia. Fibromyositis, q.v.
fibromyitis (fl-bro-mi-i-tis) [ + Gr. mys, muscle, + itis,
inflammation]. Inflammation of the muscular system followed by fibrous
degeneration of muscular fibers and atrophy.
fibromyoma (fi-bro-mi-o-ma) [+ + oma, tumor]. 1. Fibrous
tissue myoma. 2. A fibroid tumor of the uterus that contains more
fibrous than muscle tissue.
fibromyomectomy (fi-bro-mi-o-mek-to-me) [ + + ektome, excision]. Removal of a fibromyoma from the uterus, leaving that organ in place.
111 + mys, muscle, + itis, inflammation]. A group of common nonspecific
illnesses characterized by pain, tenderness, and stiffness of joints,
capsules, and adjacent structures. Focal "trigger points" may be
identified Systemic symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, and depression
may be present. SYN. fibromyalgia.
fibromyotomy (fi-bro-mi-ot-o-me) [ + + tome, incision]. Opening of a fibroid tumor.
fibroneuroma (fi-bro-nu-ro-ma) [ + Gr. neuron, nerve, + oma, tumor. A mixed neuroma and fibroma. SYN: neurofibroma
fibro-osteoma (fi-bro-os-te-o-ma) [ + Gr. osteon, bone, + oma, tumor]. Tumor containing bony and fibrous elements. SYN: osteofibroma.
fibroplasia (fi-bro-pla-se-a) [ + Gr. plasis, a molding]. The development of fibrous tissue, as in wound healing.
fibroplastic(fi-bro-plas-tik)[ + Gr. plassein, to form]. Giving formation to fibrous tissue.
fibrosarcomia (fi-bro-sar-ko-ma) [L. fibra, fiber, + Gr.
sarkos, flesh, + oma tumor]. A spindle-celled sarcoma containing much
fibrose (fi-bros). To form or produce fibrous tissue.
fibroserous (fi-bro-se-rus) [- + serosus, serous]. Containing fibrous and serosal elements. The pericardium is such a tissue.
fibrosis (fi-bro-sis) [ + Gr. osis, condition]. Abnormal formation of fibrous tissue.
fibrotic (f-i-brot-ik). Marked by or pert. to fibrosis.
fibrous (fibrus) [L. fibra, fiber]. Composed of or containing fibers.
fibula (fib-u-la) [L., pin]. [NA] The outer and smaller
bone of the leg from the ankle to the knee, articulating above with the
tibia and below with the tibia and talus. One of the longest and
thinnest bones of the body
fibular. Pert. to the fibula.
foramen (for-a-men) [L.]. (pl. foramina) [NA] A passage or
opening., an orifice, a communication between two cavities of an organ,
or a hole in a bone for passage of vessels or nerves.
f., intervertebral. Opening between adjacent articulated vertebrae for passage of nerves to and from spinal cord.
f., sacral, posterior. One of the openings on the
posterior aspect of the sacrum through which pass the posterior primary
branches of the sacral nerve.
f., sciatic, greater. Opening bounded by the hip bone, sacrum, and the sacrotuberous ligament.
f., sciatic, lesser. Opening bounded by the hip bone, sacrum, and sacrospinous ligament.
f., spinous. Opening in the spine of the sphenoid bone through which passes the middle meningeal artery.
f., transverse. Opening in the transverse process of a cervical vertebra.
f., vertebral. The large opening between ' the neural arch and the body of the vertebra
f, Weitbrecht's. Opening in the articular capsule of the shoulder joint.
fracture [L. fractura, break]. 1. A sudden breaking of a bone. 2. A broken bone.
CAUSES: In certain diseases and conditions such as osteomalacia,
syphilis, and osteomyelitis, bones break spontaneously without trauma.
Direct violence: The bone is broken directly at the spot where the
force was applied, as in fracture of the tibia by being run over.
Indirect violence: The bone is fractured by a force applied at a
distance from the site of fracture and transmitted to the fractured
bone, as fracture of the clavicle by falling on the outstretched hand.
Muscular contraction: The bone is broken by a sudden violent
contraction of the muscles.
SIGNS: Loss of power of movement; pain with acute tenderness over the
site of fracture; swelling and bruising; deformity and possible
shortening; unnatural mobility; crepitus or grating that is heard when
the ends of the bone rub together. Do not try to obtain these last two
signs. Use roentgenography to find the type of fracture and the exact
position of the bone fragments.
F.A.: In simple fractures, the limb or part must he kept immovable by
means of splints. If proper wooden, plastic, or metal splints are
unavailable, they may be improvised by using magazines or folded
newspapers. The clothing should not be removed unless there is
dangerous hemorrhage. If it is necessary to remove clothing, do so by
cutting the cloth away so as to disturb the area as little as possible.
If it is an upper extremity, it should he supported in a sling, and the
patient may then walk. If a lower limb is injured, the patient should
remain supine and make no attempt to walk.
TREAT: The physician will reduce the fracture, that is, place the
fragments in proper position. Keep the bone in position by means of a
cast until union has taken place. Then restore the limb to complete
function by physical therapy and exercise. In compound fractures, any
bleeding must be arrested before treating the fracture. Open reduction
may be required. The wound is then washed and cleaned with sterile
saline. If the area is grossly contaminated, mild soap solution may be
used provided it is thoroughly washed away by using generous amounts of
sterile saline. When the wound is quite clean, a sterile dressing is
secured by a bandage. A cast is then applied as in simple fractures.
A weak electric current applied to the fractured bones has been found
to promote healing.
RS: buttonhole fracture; cerclage; extension; greenstick fracture;
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Evaluate the patient for pain and point
tenderness, nerve and vascular impairment distal to the fracture site,
swelling, crepitus, discoloration and open wounds near the fracture
site. Immobilize the fracture by splinting the site and the joints
above and below the site. Cover an open fracture with a sterile or
clean dressing. Elevate the injured extremity to minimize edema.
Control bleeding with direct pressure, Monitor the patient's overall
condition for shock and other complicating factors. Assessment of
vascular and neurologic status of limb distal to fracture remains
important following immobilization therapy with traction, casting, or
fixation device. Also evaluate patients for infection, fat embolism,
and delayed union or non-union.
function (funk-shun) [L. functio, performance]. 1. The
action performed by any structure. In a living organism this may
pertain to a cell or a part of a cell, tissue, organ, or system of
organs. 2. The act of carrying on or performing a special activity.
Normal function is the normal action of an organ. Abnormal activity or
the failure of an organ to perform its activity is the basis of disease
or disease processes. Structural changes in an organ constitute
pathological changes and are common causes of malfunctioning, although
an organ may act abnormally in the absence of observable structural
fuse (fuz) [L. fusus, poured]. To unite or blend together as the coherence of adjacent body structures.
fusimotor (fu-si-mo-tor). Concerning the motor innervation
of the intrafusal muscle fibers arising from the gamma efferent neurons
of the anterior gray matter of the spinal cord.
fusion (fu-shun) [L. fusio] 1. Meeting and joining together through liquefaction by heat. The process of fusing or uniting.