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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.23

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


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ulnar (ul'nar) [L, ulna, elbow]. 1. Rel. to ulna, or to nerve or artery named from it. 2. Cuneiform carpal bone.

ulnar drift
. A joint change at the metacaphalangeal joints frequently seen in rheumatoid arthritis, resulting from chronic synovitis. In this condition, the long axis of the fingers make an angle with the long axis of the wrist.

ulnaris (ul-na'ris).1. Ulnar. 2. Concerning the ulna.

ulnocarpal (ul"no-kar'pal) [" + karpos, wrist]. Relating to the carpus and ulna, or to the ulnar side of the wrist.

ulnoradial (ul"no-ra'd-al) [" + radius, spoke of a wheel]. Rel. to the ulna and radius, as their ligaments and articulations.

uncal (ung'kal). Concerning the uncus of the brain.

unciform (un'si-form) [L. uncus, hook,    + forma, shape]. Hook-shaped.
unciform bone. Hook-shaped bone on ulnar side of distal row of the carpus. SYN: os hamatum [NA].
unciform fasciculus. Bundle of fibers connecting frontal cerebral lobes with the temporosphenoid lobes.
unciform process. 1. Long thin lamina of bone from orbital plate of the ethmoid articulating with the inferior turbinate. 2. Hook at anterior end of the hippocampal gyrus. 3. Hooked end of unciform bone.

uncinate bundle of Russell
. [J. S. R. Russell, Brit. physician, 1863-1939] Fibers that arise in the fastigial superior cerebellar peduncle and pass inferiorly to the vestibular nuclei and reticular formation by which impulses are carried to muscles, esp. those of the neck and body.
uncinate epilepsy. Form of epilepsy occurring in disease of uncinate area of the temporal lobe.
uncinate fasciculus. Bundle of fibers connecting orbital gyri of frontal lobe with rostral portion of temporal lobe. They curve sharply as they pass over lateral fissure of cerebrum.

unstriated (un-stri'at-ed) [" + striatus, striped]. Unstriped, as smooth muscle fiber.
utricle (u'trik'l) [L. utriculus, a little bag]. 1. One of two sacs of the membranous labyrinth in the bony vestibule of the inner ear. It communicates with the semicircular ducts by five openings on posterior wall and with the sacculus and endolymphatic duct by an opening on anterior wall. On its inner surface is an area of sensory epithelium, the macula utriculi, containing cells that respond to movement of otoliths due to changes in position. 2. Any small sac.
u. of vestibule. Vestibular cavity connecting with the semicircular canals.

(u-trik'u-lar) [L. utriculus, a little bag]. 1. Pert. to the utricle. 2. Like a bladder.
utriculitis (u-trik-u-li'tis) [" + Gr. itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the utricle, either that of the vestibule or the prostatic utricle.
utriculosaccular. Pert. To the utrical and saccul of the labyrinth.
utriculosaccular duct. Duct uniting the utricle and saccule.


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varicophlebitis (var"i-ko-fle-bi tis) [" +  Gr. phleps, vein,    +    itis, inflammation]. Phlebitis combined with varicose veins.
varicose (var'i-kos) [L. varicosus, full of dilated veins]. Pert. to varices; distended, swollen, knotted veins.
varicose ulcers.  Ulcers that form as a result of varicose veins. When thrombophlebitis develops in varicose veins, this leads to venous stasis and eventually edema and ulcer formation.
NURSING IMPLICATIONS: Maintain patient on bedrest. Continuously apply warm, moist compresses to relieve discomfort and infection. Use aseptic technique when applying dressings and therapeutic agents. varicose veins. Enlarged, twisted superficial veins. May occur in almost any part of the body but are most commonly observed in the lower extremity and in the esophagus.
SYM: Pain in feet and ankles, swelling, ulcers on skin. Severe bleeding if a vein is injured.
ETIOL: Incompetent venous valves that may be acquired or congenital. The development of varicose veins is promoted and aggravated by pregnancy, obesity, and occupations that require prolonged standing. Esophageal varices are caused by portal hypertension that accompanies cirrhosis of the liver.
F.A.: In hemorrhage, elevation of extremity and gentle but firm pressure over wound will stop bleeding. The use of a tourniquet is undesirable. Sterile dressing should be held in place with a firm bandage. Patient should not be permitted to walk for some time. The Sengstaken-Blakemore tube may be used to control bleeding due to hemorrhage from esophageal varices.
TREAT: In general, consists of rest, elevation of extremity, and use of an external support. The use of elastic stockings is much preferred to elastic bandages. Unna's paste boots recommended for elderly or debilitated persons. Injection of sclerosing solutions may be utilized for small varicosities. High ligation and removal of vein by stripping may be necessary for major varicosities.
varicosis (var"i-ko'sis) [L.]. Varicose condition of veins.

(var"i-kos'i-te) [L. uarix, twisted vein]. 1. Condition of being varicose. 2. A swollen, twisted vein. SYN: varix.

(var"i-kot'o-me) [" + Gr. tome, incision]. Excision of a varicose vein.

(ver'te-bra) [L.]. (pl. vertebrae) [NA] Any one of the 33 bony segments of the spinal column. The spinal vertebrae contain 7 cervical, 12 thoracic (dorsal), 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal vertebrae. In adults, the five sacral vertebrae fuse to form a single bone, the sacrum, and the four rudimentary coccygeal vertebrae fuse to form the coccyx.
A typical vertebra consists of a ventral body and a dorsal or neural arch. In the thoracic region the body bears on each side two costal pits for reception of the head of the rib. The arch that encloses the vertebral foramen is formed of two roots or pedicles and two laminae. The arch bears seven processes: a dorsal spinous process, two lateral transverse processes, and four articular processes (two superior and two inferior). A deep concavity, inferior vertebral notch, on the inferior border of the arch provides a passageway for a spinal nerve. The successive vertebral foramina surround the spinal cord.
The bodies of successive vertebrae articulate with one another and are separated by intervertebral disks, disks of fibrous cartilage enclosing a central mass, the nucleus pulposus. The inferior articular processes articulate with the superior articular processes of the next succeeding vertebra in the caudal direction. Several ligaments (supraspinous, interspinous, anterior and posterior longitudinal, and the ligamenta flava) hold the vertebrae in position yet permit a limited degree of movement.
v., basilar. The lowest of the lumbar vertebrae.
v., cervical. The seven vertebrae of the neck.
v., coccygeal. The rudimentary vertebrae of the coccyx.
v. dentata. The second cervical vertebra. SYN: axis [NA]; v., odontoid.
v., false. The sacral and coccygeal vertebrae that fuse. SYN: v., fixed.
v., fixed. V., false.
v., flexion. All vertebrae except the atlas and axis.
v., lumbar. The five vertebrae between the thoracic vertebrae and the sacrum.
v. magnum. The sacrum.
v., odontoid. V. dentata.
v. prominens. [NA] The seventh cervical vertebra.
v., rotation. The first two cervical vertebrae, the atlas and axis.
v., sacral. The five fused vertebrae forming the sacrum.
v., stemal. The segments of the sternum.
v., thoracic. The 12 vertebrae that connect the ribs and form part of the posterior wall of the thorax
v., true. The vertebrae that remain unfused through life: the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar.

(ver'te-bral) [L. vertebra, vertebra]. Pertaining to a vertebra or the vertebral column.

vertebral arch.
The thoracic portion of a vertebra that encloses a vertebral foramen.

vertebral canal.
Cavity of the spinal column that contains the spinal cord. SYN: spinal canal.

vertebral column.
Spinal column.

vertebral foramen.
The hollow space enclosed by a vertebral arch.

vertebral groove
. Groove lying on either side of the spinous processes of the vertebrae.

vertebral notch. Notch on inferior surface of vertebral arch for transmission of a spinal nerve.

vertebral ribs
. The lower two, or floating, ribs.

(ver"te-bra're-(um) [L.]. The vertebral column.

(ver"te-bra'ta). A subphylum of the phylum Chordata characterized by posession of segmented backbone or spinal column. They possess an axial notochord at some period of their existence. Includes the following classes: Agnatha (cyclastomes); Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes); Osteichthyes (bony fishes); Amphibia; Reptilia; Aves; and Mammalia.

(ver"te-brek'to-me) ["    +  Gr. ektome, excision]. Excision of a vertebra or part of one.

(ver"te-bro-ar-te're-al) [" + Gr. arteria, artery]. Concerning the vertebral artery.
vertebrobasilar (ver"te-bro-bas'i-lar) [" +    basilaris, basilar]. Concerning the vertebral and basilar arteries.
vertebrochondral (ver"t'e-bro-kon'dral) ["  +    Gr. chondros, cartilage]. Denoting the vertebra and the costal cartilages.

(ver"te-bro-kos'tal) [" + costa, rib]. Pert. to a vertebra and a rib. SYN: costovertebral.

(ver"te-bra -fem'or-al) (" + femur, thigh]. Concerning the vertebrae and femur.

(ver"te-bro-il'e-ak) [" + iliacus, pert. to ilium]. Concerning the vertebrae and ilium.

(ver"te-bro-mam'mare) [" + mamma, breast]. Pert. to the vertebral and mammary areas.

(ver"te-bro-sa'kral) [" + sacrum, sacred]. Concerning the vertebrae and sacrum.

(ver"te-bro-ster'nal) [" + Gr. sternon, chest]. Pert. to a vertebra and the sternum.

vestibular nerve. A main division of the auditory nerve. Arises in the vestibular ganglion and is concerned with equilibrium.

(vi-bra'shun).1. A to-and-fro movement. SYN: oscillation. 2. Therapeutic shaking of the body, a form of massage. Consists of a quick motion of the fingers or the hand vertical to the body or use of a mechanical vibrator.

(vi'bra-tor) [L. vibrator, a shaker]. Device for causing artificial vibration of body or its parts.
v., whole body. Exposure of the entire body as would occur in occupations such as truck and tractor driver, jackhammer operators, helicopter pilots, and construction workers using various vibration-producing tools. There is evidence that such exposure may produce diseases of the peripheral nerves, prostatitis,and back disorders.

   (vi bra-to"re)  [L.    vibrator,    a shaker]. Having a vibrating or oscillatory movement.

vibratory sense.
The ability to perceive vibrations transmitted through the skin to deep tissues. Usually tested by placing a vibrating tuning fork over bony prominences.

Villaret's syndrome
(ve-lar-az'). [Maurice Villaret, Fr. neurologist, 1877-1946] Ipsilateral paralysis of the ninth, tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and sometimes the seventh cranial nerves and the cervical sympathetic fibers. It is caused by a lesion in the posterior retroparotid space. The signs and symptoms include paralysis and anesthesia of the pharyngeal area with difficulty swallowing; loss of taste sensation in the posterior third of the tongue; paralysis of the vocal cords, sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles; and Horner's syndrome.

(vo-lish'un) [L. volitio, will]. The act or power of willing or choosing.

(vo-lish'un-al). Performed by volition.

Volkmann's canals
(folk'manz). [A. W. Volkmann, Ger. physiologist, 1800-1877] Vascular channels in compact bone. They are not surrounded by concentric lamellae as are the haversian canals.

Volkmann's contracture
(folk'manz). [Richard von Volkmann, Ger. surgeon, 1830-1899] Degeneration, contracture, fibrosis, and atrophy of a muscle resulting from injury to its blood supply. Usually seen in the hand. SYN: paralysis, ischemic.

voluntary muscle
. Any muscle that is normally controlled by the will. They are generally attached to the skeleton and are innervated by myelinated nerves coming directly from the brain or spinal cord. Microscopically they consist of long cylindrical fibers bearing crosswise striations. The terms voluntary,striped, striated, cross-striated, and skeletal are practically synonymous when applied to muscle.


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Waldenstrom's disease (val'den-stremz). [Johann Henning Waldenstrom, Swedish surgeon, b. 1877] Osteocbondritis deformans juvenilis.
walker. A mobile device used to assist a person in walking. It consists of a stable platform made of metal tubing that the patient grasps while taking a step. The walker is then moved forward and another step is taken.
walking cast. A cast that allows the patient to be ambulatory.
walking system. A complex device that enables patients with spinal injuries resulting in paralysis of the legs to walk. The device uses computer-controlled electrical stimulation to muscles so that walking maybe accomplished. Each of these devices is made especially for each patient; and their use is experimental. Werdnig-Hoffmann disease (verd'nig-hof'man). [Guido Werdnig, Austrian neurologist, 1844-1919; Johann Hoffmann, Ger. neurologist, 1557-1919] A hereditary, progressive, infantile form of muscular atrophy resulting from degeneration of anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Characterized by early onset, hypotonia and wasting of muscles, complete flaccid paralysis, and death.
Werdnig-Hoffmann paralysis. Infantile muscular atrophy, considered by some to be identical with amyotonia congenita.

(rist) [AS]. The joint or region lying between the hand and the forearm.

wrist bones
. The carpus consisting of eight bones.

wrist drop.
Condition in which hand is flexed at wrist and cannot be extended; due to injury of radial nerve or paralysis of extensor muscles of wrist and hand.

wrist unit
. A component of an upper extremity prosthesis that attaches the terminal device to the forearm section and provides for pronation or supination.
writer's cramp. A cramp affecting muscles of the thumb and two adjacent fingers after prolonged writing.

(ri nek). Contracted state of one or more muscles of the neck, producing an abnormal position of the head. Occasionally it is acute, due to cold or trauma; more commonly it is chronic, spastic in character, and dependent upon nerve irritation. Has been produced by habitual malposition of the head assumed because of existing ocular defect. May be congenital. When acute, it generally passes away under influence of rest, heat, and time. Chronic wryneck may require surgical therapy. SYN: loxia; torticollis.


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xiphisternum (zif'i-ster'num) [Gr. xiphos, sword,    + sternon, chest]. The pointed process of the lower end of the sternum. SYN: xiphoid process.

(zif"o-kos'tal) ["    +    L. costa, rib]. Rel. to the xiphoid cartilage and ribs.

xiphocostal ligament
. Ligament connecting the xiphoid cartilage to the cartilage of the 8th rib.

(zif"o-din'e-a) [" + odyne, pain]. Pain in the ensiform cartilage.

xiphoid process.
The lowest portion of the sternum; sword-shaped cartilaginous process supported by bone. It has no ribs attached to it, but some of the abdominal muscles are attached to it. It ossifies in the aged.

(zi;f"oyd-i'tis) ["    +    "    +    itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the ensiform or xiphoid cartilage.


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Y Cartilage. The cartilage that connects the pubis, ilium, and ischium and extends into the acetabulum.

. The Chinese symbol of opposing but complementary entities or concepts such as light-dark; male-female; sun-moon. In Chinese philosophy and medicine, the goal is to have a proper balance of such biological forces. Applied to contemporary biology, this would embody a feedback type of control of physiological phenomena.

[Sanskrit, union]. A system of beliefs and practices, the goal of which is to attain a union of the individual self with Supreme Reality or the Universal Self. The term yoga, as used in the Western world, has been associated almost exclusively with physical postures and regulation of breathing. These are yoga exercises but not yoga in the spiritual sense


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Zaglas' ligament (za'glus). The part of the posterior sacroiliac ligament from the posterosuperior spinous process of the ilium to the side of the sacrum.

Zang's space (zangz). [Christoph B. Zang, Ger. surgeon, 1772-1835] Space between the two lower tendons of the sternomastoid muscle in the supraclavicular fossa.

Z disk.
A thin, dark disk that transversely crosses through and bisects the clear zone of a striated muscle and bisects the clear zone (isotropic disk) of a striated muscle fiber. The portion between two disks constitutes a sarcomere. SYN: Krause's membrane.