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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.21

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


Tabes to temporozygomatic  |   tenalgia to tibiotarsal  |  thalalamic to tissue  |  torticollar to tympanic

thalamic (thal-am'ik) [Gr. thalamos, inner chamber]. Pert. to the thalamus.

thalamic syndrome.
Vascular lesions of the thalamus causing disturbances of sensation and partial or complete paralysis of one side of the body. An extremely severe, sharp, boring-type pain may occur spontaneously. There also is a tendency to over-respond to a sensory stimulus and to be aware of the stimulus long after it has ceased.
ETIOL: Optic thalamus lesion.

[Gr. thalamos, inner chamber]. 1. Combining form meaning chamber, part of brain at which a nerve originates. 2. Pert. to the thalamus.

, thalamocoele (thal'am-o-sel) [" + koilia, a hollow]. The 3rd ventricle of the brain.

(thal"am-o-kor'ti-kal) [" + L. cortex, rind]. Pert. to the optic thalamus and the cerebral cortex.

(thal'am-o-len-tik'u-lar) [" + L. lenticula, lentil]. Concerning the optic thalamus and the lenticular nucleus.

(thal-a-mot'o-me) [" + tome, incision]. Destruction by one of several methods of a portion of the thalamus in order to treat psychosis or intractable pain.

(thal'a-mus) [L.]. (pl thalami) [NA] The largest subdivision of the diencephalon on either side, consisting chiefly of an ovoid gray nuclear mass in the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle. Each consists of a number of
nuclei (anterior, medial, lateral, and verntral), the medial and lateral geniculate bodies, and the pulvinar.
FUNCT: All sensory stimuli, with the exception of olfactory, are received by the  thalamus. These are associated, synthesized, and then relayed through thalamoco-cortical radiations to specific cortical areas. Impulses are also received from the cortex, hypothalamus, and corpus striatum and relayed to visceral and somatic effectors. The thalamus is also the center for appreciation of primitive uncritical sensations of pain, crude touch, and temperature.
thecal (the'kal) [Gr. theke, sheath]. Pert. to a sheath.

(the-si'tis) [" + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the sheath of a tendon.

(the'nal) [Gr. thenar, palm]. Pert. to the palm or thenar eminence.

thenal aspect.
Outer side of the palm.

(the'nar) [Gr. thenar, palm]. 1. Palm of hand or sole of foot. 2. Fleshy eminence at base of thumb. 3. Concerning the palm.

thenar cleft.
A fascial cleft of the palm overlying volar surface of adductor pollicis muscle.

thenar eminence
. A prominence at the base of the thumb.

A thin membrane covering the short muscles of the thumb.

thenar muscles
. Abductor and flexor muscles of the thumb.

(ther-a-pu'tik) [Gr. therapeutikos, treating]. 1. Pert. to results obtained from treatment. 2. Having medicinal or healing properties. 3. A healing agent.

therapeutic exercise
. Scientific supervision of exercise for the purpose of preventing muscular atrophy, restoring joint and muscle function, increasing muscular strength, and improving efficiency of cardiovascular and pulmonary function.

(ther'a-pist) [Gr. therapeia, treatment]. A person skilled in giving therapy. Usually in a specific field of health care.
t., occupational. Therapist skilled in using environmental or task modification to assist persons unable to accomplish usual tasks because of disability.
t., physical. A person trained in physical medicine and capable of administering physical therapy. SYN: physiotherapist.
herapy (ther'a-pe) [Gr. therapetia, treatment]. Treatment of a disease or pathological condition.
t., occupational.    SEE:    occupational therapy.
t., physical. Use of physical agents, such as massage, heat, hydrotherapy, radiation, electricity, and exercise, in the treatment of disease.

thoracic (tho-ras'ik) [Gr. thorax, chest]. Pert. to the chest or thorax.

thoracic limbs.
Upper extremities.

(tho-ras"i-ko-ab-domi-nal). Concerning the thorax and abdome

(tho-ras'i-ko-hu'mer-al) Concerning the thorax and humerus borne.

Thoracic outlet compression syndrome
. A symptom complex caused by conditions in which nerves or vessels are compressed the neck or axilla. Anatomically, the cause is compression by structures, such as the first rib pressing against the clavicle. Also, the condition may be associated with a cervical. rib or scalenus anticus syndrome. It is characterized by brachial neuritis with or without vascular or vasomotor disturbance in the upper extremities.

thoracic surgery
. Surgery involving the rib cage and structures contained within the thoracic cage.

[Gr. thorakos, chest]. Combining form meaning chest or chest wall.

(tho"rak-o-lum'bar) ["    + L. lumbus, loin]. Pert. to the thoracic and lumbar parts of the spine; noting their ganglia and the fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.

(tho'raks) [Gr., chest]. [NA] That part of the body between the base of the neck superiorly and  the diaphragm inferiorly. The surface of the thorax is divided into regions as follows: Anterior surface: supra- clavicular, above the clavicles; suprasternal, above the sternum; clavicular, over the clavicles; sternal, over the sternum; mammary, the space between the 3rd and 6th ribs on either side; inframammary, below the mamma and above the lower border of 12th rib on either side. Posterior surface; scapular, over the scapulae; interscapular, between the scapulae; infrascapular, below the scapulae. On sides: axillary, above the 6th rib. SYN: chest.
t., bony. The part of the skeleton that is made up of the thoracic vertebrae, 12 pair of ribs and the sternum.

(thrip'sis) [Gr., breaking in pieces]. A fracture in which the bone is splintered or crushed.
thumb (thum) [AS. thuma, thumb]. The short thick first finger on the radial side of the hand, having two phalanges and being opposable to the other four digits. SYN: pollex.
t., tennis. Calcification and inflammation of the tendon of the flexor pollicis longus muscle due to repeated irritation and stress while playing tennis.

tibia (tib'e-a) [L., tibia, shinbone]. The inner and larger bone of the leg between the knee and ankle articulating with the femur above and with the talus below.
t. valga. A bulging of the lower legs in which the convexity is inward. SYN: genu valgum.
t. vara. A bowing of the lower legs in which the convexity is outward. SYN: genu varum.

(tib'e-ad) ["    +    ad, to;. Toward the tibia.

(tib'e-al) [L. tibialis]. Concerning the tibia.

(tib"e-al'je-a) [" + Gr. al, -pain]. Pain in the tibia.

(tib"e-a'1is) [L.]. [NA] Pert. to the tibia.

tibioadductor reflex
(tib"e-o-ad-duk'tor) [ L. tibia, shinbone, + adducere, to lead to.]  Adduction of either the stimulated leg or the opposite one when the tibia is percussed on the inner side.

(tib"e-o-kal-ka'ne-an). Concerning the tibia and calcaneus bones.

(tib"e-o-fem'or-al) [" + femur, thigh]. Rel. to the tibia and femur

(tib"e-o-fib'u-lar) [" + L.;bula, pin]. Rel. to the tibia and fibula.

(tib"e-o-na-vik'u-lar). Concerning the tibia and navicular bones.

(tib"e-o-per'o-ne'al). Tibio fibular.

(tib"e-o-skaf'oyd). Tibionavicular.

(tib"e-o-tar'sal) ["    +    Gr, tarsa broad, flat surface]. Rel. to the tibia and tarsus.
tissue (tish'u) [O. Fr. tissu, from L. texere, to weave]. A group or collection of similar cells and their intercellular substance that act together in the performance of a particular function. The primary tissues are epithelial, connective, skeletal, muscular, glandular, and nervous.
t., bony, bone. Bone in its usual or abnormal site, i.e., in calcified tissue.
t., Cancellous. Spongy bone with many narrow cavities. It is present at the ends of long articular bones and in the interior of most flat bones.
t., cartilage. The dense connective tissue of cartilage consisting of cells embedded in a matrix.
t., Chordal. Tissue of the notochord or derived therefrom. The nucleus pulposus is derived from the notochord.
t. "s, chromaffin. Tissues containing cells that give the chromaffin reaction. Found in the adrenal medulla and ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system:
t., connective. Tissue that supports and connects other tissues and parts of the body. The cells of connective tissue are comparatively few in number, the bulk of the tissue consisting of intercellular substance or matrix, the nature of which gives each type of connective tissue its particular properties. Connective tissues are highly vascular with the exception of cartilage. Connective tissue proper includes the following types: mucous, fibrous (areolar, white fibrous, yellow fibrous, or elastic), reticular, and adipose. Dense connective tissue includes cartilage and bone (osseous tissue).
t., endothelial. Endothelium.
t., epithelial. A form of tissue composed of cells arranged in a continuous sheet consisting of one or several layers. It forms the epidermis of skin, covers surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, and forms tubes and ducts and secreting portions of glands. SYN: epithelium.
t., extracellular. All of the tissue and fluids outside of the cells of the body. Included are plasma, serum, lymph, aqueous and vitreous humors, and connective tissue such as collagen, cartilage, and some bone.
t., muscular. The material composing the muscles. Voluntary: Striped or striated tissue principally connected with the bony framework. In animals it is known as lean meat or flesh. It is a cross-striped muscular tissue, the fibers like a long cylinder with   flattened sides and conical ends, enveloped  IN a delicate sheath, the sarcolemma. Involuntary: Smooth or unstriped, or non-striated, not under control of the will. Principally found in walls of hollow organs, tubes, arteries, and veins. SEE: muscle.
t., myeloid. The red bone marrow in which most blood cells are formed.
t, nerve, nervous. All of the tissue of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
t., osseous. Connective tissue with intercellular substance impregnated with phosphate and carbonate of calcium, the mineral substances being two thirds of the bone's dry weight. SYN: bony tissue.
t., reticular. A type of connective tissue consisting of delicate fibers forming interlacing networks. Fibers stain selectively with silver stains and are called argyrophil fibres. It supports lymph nodes and is found in muscular tissue and bone marrow, the spleen, liver, lungs, kidneys, and mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.
t., sclerous. Firm connective tissues such as bone and cartilage.
t., skeletal. The bones, cartilages, and connective tissues that make up the skeleton.
t., white fibrous. Connective tissue with white inelastic fibers, forming tendons, ligaments, and resistant membranes.
t., white nervous. Nervous tissue of medullated nerve fibers.