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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.21
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
Tabes to temporozygomatic | tenalgia to tibiotarsal | thalalamic to tissue |
torticollar to tympanic
thalamic (thal-am'ik) [Gr. thalamos, inner chamber]. Pert. to the
thalamic syndrome. Vascular lesions of the thalamus causing
disturbances of sensation and partial or complete paralysis of one side
of the body. An extremely severe, sharp, boring-type pain may occur
spontaneously. There also is a tendency to over-respond to a sensory
stimulus and to be aware of the stimulus long after it has ceased.
ETIOL: Optic thalamus lesion.
thalamo- [Gr. thalamos, inner chamber]. 1. Combining form
meaning chamber, part of brain at which a nerve originates. 2. Pert. to
(thal'am-o-sel) [" + koilia, a hollow]. The 3rd ventricle of the brain.
thalamocortical (thal"am-o-kor'ti-kal) [" + L. cortex, rind].
Pert. to the optic thalamus and the cerebral cortex.
thalamolenticular (thal'am-o-len-tik'u-lar) [" + L. lenticula,
lentil]. Concerning the optic thalamus and the lenticular nucleus.
thalamotomy (thal-a-mot'o-me) [" + tome, incision]. Destruction
by one of several methods of a portion of the thalamus in order to treat
psychosis or intractable pain.
thalamus (thal'a-mus) [L.]. (pl thalami) [NA] The largest
subdivision of the diencephalon on either side, consisting chiefly of an
ovoid gray nuclear mass in the lateral wall of the 3rd ventricle. Each
consists of a number of
nuclei (anterior, medial, lateral, and verntral), the medial and
lateral geniculate bodies, and the pulvinar.
FUNCT: All sensory stimuli, with the exception of olfactory, are
received by the thalamus. These are associated, synthesized, and
then relayed through thalamoco-cortical radiations to specific cortical
areas. Impulses are also received from the cortex, hypothalamus, and
corpus striatum and relayed to visceral and somatic effectors. The
thalamus is also the center for appreciation of primitive uncritical
sensations of pain, crude touch, and temperature.
thecal (the'kal) [Gr.
theke, sheath]. Pert. to a sheath.
thecitis (the-si'tis) [" + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of
the sheath of a tendon.
thenal (the'nal) [Gr. thenar, palm]. Pert. to the palm or
thenal aspect. Outer side of the palm.
thenar (the'nar) [Gr. thenar, palm]. 1. Palm of hand or sole of
foot. 2. Fleshy eminence at base of thumb. 3. Concerning the palm.
thenar cleft. A fascial cleft of the palm overlying volar surface
of adductor pollicis muscle.
thenar eminence. A prominence at the base of the thumb.
thenarfascia. A thin membrane covering the short muscles of the
thenar muscles. Abductor and flexor muscles of the thumb.
therapeutic (ther-a-pu'tik) [Gr. therapeutikos, treating]. 1.
Pert. to results obtained from treatment. 2. Having medicinal or healing
properties. 3. A healing agent.
therapeutic exercise. Scientific supervision of exercise for the
purpose of preventing muscular atrophy, restoring joint and muscle
function, increasing muscular strength, and improving efficiency of
cardiovascular and pulmonary function.
therapist (ther'a-pist) [Gr. therapeia, treatment]. A person
skilled in giving therapy. Usually in a specific field of health care.
Therapist skilled in using environmental or task modification to assist
persons unable to accomplish usual tasks because of disability.
t., physical. A person
trained in physical medicine and capable of administering physical
therapy. SYN: physiotherapist.
herapy (ther'a-pe) [Gr. therapetia, treatment]. Treatment
of a disease or pathological condition.
SEE: occupational therapy.
t., physical. Use of
physical agents, such as massage, heat, hydrotherapy, radiation,
electricity, and exercise, in the treatment of disease.
[Gr. thorax, chest]. Pert. to the chest or thorax.
thoracic limbs. Upper extremities.
thoracicoabdominal (tho-ras"i-ko-ab-domi-nal). Concerning the
thorax and abdome
thoracicohumeral (tho-ras'i-ko-hu'mer-al) Concerning the thorax
and humerus borne.
Thoracic outlet compression syndrome. A symptom complex caused
by conditions in which nerves or vessels are compressed the neck or
axilla. Anatomically, the cause is compression by structures, such as
the first rib pressing against the clavicle. Also, the condition may be
associated with a cervical. rib or scalenus anticus syndrome. It is
characterized by brachial neuritis with or without vascular or vasomotor
disturbance in the upper extremities.
thoracic surgery. Surgery involving the rib cage and structures
contained within the thoracic cage.
thoraco- [Gr. thorakos, chest]. Combining form meaning chest or
thoracolumbar (tho"rak-o-lum'bar) [" + L.
lumbus, loin]. Pert. to the thoracic and lumbar parts of the spine;
noting their ganglia and the fibers of the sympathetic nervous system.
thorax (tho'raks) [Gr., chest]. [NA] That part of the body
between the base of the neck superiorly and the diaphragm
inferiorly. The surface of the thorax is divided into regions as
follows: Anterior surface: supra- clavicular, above the clavicles;
suprasternal, above the sternum; clavicular, over the clavicles;
sternal, over the sternum; mammary, the space between the 3rd and 6th
ribs on either side; inframammary, below the mamma and above the lower
border of 12th rib on either side. Posterior surface; scapular, over
the scapulae; interscapular, between the scapulae; infrascapular, below
the scapulae. On sides: axillary, above the 6th rib. SYN: chest.
t., bony. The part of
the skeleton that is made up of the thoracic vertebrae, 12 pair of ribs
and the sternum.
thrypsis (thrip'sis) [Gr., breaking in pieces]. A fracture in
which the bone is splintered or crushed.
thumb (thum) [AS. thuma, thumb]. The short thick first finger on the
radial side of the hand, having two phalanges and being opposable to
the other four digits. SYN: pollex.
Calcification and inflammation of the tendon of the flexor pollicis
longus muscle due to repeated irritation and stress while playing
tibia (tib'e-a) [L., tibia, shinbone]. The inner and larger
bone of the leg between the knee and ankle articulating with the femur
above and with the talus below.
t. valga. A bulging of
the lower legs in which the convexity is inward. SYN: genu valgum.
t. vara. A bowing of
the lower legs in which the convexity is outward. SYN: genu varum.
tibiad (tib'e-ad) [" + ad,
to;. Toward the tibia.
tibial (tib'e-al) [L. tibialis]. Concerning the tibia.
tibialgia (tib"e-al'je-a) [" + Gr. al, -pain]. Pain in the
tibialis (tib"e-a'1is) [L.]. [NA] Pert. to the tibia.
tibioadductor reflex (tib"e-o-ad-duk'tor) [ L. tibia, shinbone,
+ adducere, to lead to.] Adduction of either the stimulated leg or
the opposite one when the tibia is percussed on the inner side.
tibiocalcanean (tib"e-o-kal-ka'ne-an). Concerning the tibia and
tibiofemoral (tib"e-o-fem'or-al) [" + femur, thigh]. Rel. to the
tibia and femur
tibiofibular (tib"e-o-fib'u-lar) [" + L.;bula, pin]. Rel. to the
tibia and fibula.
tibionavicular (tib"e-o-na-vik'u-lar). Concerning the tibia and
tibioperoneal (tib"e-o-per'o-ne'al). Tibio fibular.
tibioscaphoid (tib"e-o-skaf'oyd). Tibionavicular.
tibiotarsal (tib"e-o-tar'sal) ["
+ Gr, tarsa broad, flat surface]. Rel. to the tibia
tissue (tish'u) [O. Fr.
tissu, from L. texere, to weave]. A group or collection of similar
cells and their intercellular substance that act together in the
performance of a particular function. The primary tissues are
epithelial, connective, skeletal, muscular, glandular, and nervous.
t., bony, bone. Bone in
its usual or abnormal site, i.e., in calcified tissue.
t., Cancellous. Spongy
bone with many narrow cavities. It is present at the ends of long
articular bones and in the interior of most flat bones.
t., cartilage. The
dense connective tissue of cartilage consisting of cells embedded in a
t., Chordal. Tissue
of the notochord or derived therefrom. The nucleus pulposus is derived
from the notochord.
t. "s, chromaffin.
Tissues containing cells that give the chromaffin reaction. Found in the
adrenal medulla and ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system:
t., connective. Tissue
that supports and connects other tissues and parts of the body. The
cells of connective tissue are comparatively few in number, the bulk
of the tissue consisting of intercellular substance or matrix, the
nature of which gives each type of connective tissue its particular
properties. Connective tissues are highly vascular with the exception
of cartilage. Connective tissue proper includes the following types:
mucous, fibrous (areolar, white fibrous, yellow fibrous, or elastic),
reticular, and adipose. Dense connective tissue includes cartilage and
bone (osseous tissue).
t., epithelial. A form
of tissue composed of cells arranged in a continuous sheet consisting
of one or several layers. It forms the epidermis of skin, covers
surfaces of organs, lines cavities and canals, and forms tubes and
ducts and secreting portions of glands. SYN: epithelium.
t., extracellular. All
of the tissue and fluids outside of the cells of the body. Included
are plasma, serum, lymph, aqueous and vitreous humors, and connective
tissue such as collagen, cartilage, and some bone.
t., muscular. The
material composing the muscles. Voluntary: Striped or striated tissue
principally connected with the bony framework. In animals it is known as
lean meat or flesh. It is a cross-striped muscular tissue, the fibers
like a long cylinder with flattened sides and conical ends,
enveloped IN a delicate sheath, the sarcolemma. Involuntary:
Smooth or unstriped, or non-striated, not under control of the will.
Principally found in walls of hollow organs, tubes, arteries, and
veins. SEE: muscle.
t., myeloid. The red
bone marrow in which most blood cells are formed.
t, nerve, nervous. All
of the tissue of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
t., osseous. Connective
tissue with intercellular substance impregnated with phosphate and
carbonate of calcium, the mineral substances being two thirds of the
bone's dry weight. SYN: bony tissue.
t., reticular. A type
of connective tissue consisting of delicate fibers forming interlacing
networks. Fibers stain selectively with silver stains and are called
argyrophil fibres. It supports lymph nodes and is found in muscular
tissue and bone marrow, the spleen, liver, lungs, kidneys, and mucous
membranes of the gastrointestinal tract.
t., sclerous. Firm
connective tissues such as bone and cartilage.
t., skeletal. The bones,
cartilages, and connective tissues that make up the skeleton.
t., white fibrous.
Connective tissue with white inelastic fibers, forming tendons,
ligaments, and resistant membranes.
t., white nervous. Nervous
tissue of medullated nerve fibers.