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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.19.

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


Tabes to temporozygomatic  |  tenalgia to tibiotarsal  | tenosynovitis to tissue  |  torticollar to tympanic

Tabes (ta'bez) [L., wasting disease]. A gradual, progressive wasting in any chronic disease.
t. dorsalis. Sclerosis of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. SYN: ataxia, locomotor. SYM: Postural instability, esp. when eyes are closed, and a staggering wide-base gait are characteristic; hence the name locomotor ataxia. Pain and paresthesias are common, esp. lightning pains, described as sharp, stabbing, and paroxyamal. Ankle and knee reflexes are diminished or lost. Many symptoms characteristic of syphilis such as pupillary changes, optic atrophy, bladder disturbances, and development of trophic ulcers, esp. on feet, make diagnosis certain.
tactile localization. An individual's ability to accurately identify the site of tactile stimulation (touch, pressure, or pain). Tactile localization is often tested in sensory evaluations following disease or trauma of the nervous system.

tactile system. That portion of the nervous system concerned with the sensation of touch. Includes sensory nerve endings (Meissner's corpuscles, Merkel's tactile disks, hair-root endings), afferent nerve fibers, conducting pathways in the cord and brain, and sensory (somesthetic) area of cerebral cortex.

Tali (ta'li). Pl. of talus.

talipedic (tali-pe'dik) [L. talus, ankle,    + pes, foot]. Clubfooted. SEE: talipes.

talipes (talli-pez) [L. talus, ankle,    + pes, foot]. Any of a number of deformities of the foot, esp. those occurring congenitally; a nontraumatic deviation of the foot in the direction of one or the other of the four lines of movement, or of two of these combined. SYN: clubfoot.
t. calcaneus. Talipes in which the foot is flexed and the heel alone touches the ground, causing the patient to walk on the inner side of the heel. Often follows infantile paralysis of the muscle of Achilles tendon.
t. cavus. T. arcuatus.
t. equinus. Talipes in which the foot is extended and the person walks on the toes.
t. peicavus. Talipes in which there is excessive plantar curvature.
t. valgus. Talipes in which the heel and foot are turned outward.
t. varus. Talipes in which the heel is turned inward, away from the midline.

talocalcaneal (ta"lo-kal-ka'ne-al) [" + calcaneus, heel bone]. Pert. to the talus and calcaneus, bones of the tarsus.

talocrural (ta"lo-kroo'ral) [" + crus, leg]. Pert. to the talus and leg bones.
talocrural articulation. The ankle joint, a ginglymus or hinge joint.

talofibular (ta"lo-fib'u-lar) [" + fibula, pin]. Concerning the talus and fibula.

talonavicular (ta"lo-na-vik'u-1ar) [L. talus, ankle, +- navicula, boat]. Concerning the talus and navicular bones.

talotibial (ta"lo-tib'e-al) [" + tibia, shin bone]. Concerning the talus and tibial bones.

talus (ta'lus) [L., ankle]. (pl. tali) [NA] The ankle bone articulating with the tibia, fibula, calcaneus, and navicular bone. Formerly called astragalus.

tapotement (ta-pot-mon') [Fr.]. Percussion in massage. It is divided into beating with the clenched hand, used for sciatica and muscular atrophy; clapping performed with the palm of the hand, used to reach superficial nerves; hacking with the ulnar border of the hand, used principally around a nerve center and upon the muscles; punctuation with the tips of the fingers, used principally around the heart and upon the head.
The strength of the manipulations is an essential factor in the massage treatment, and care must be taken not to bruise the patient. As a rule, begin with moderate pressure, ascertaining from the patient his sensation. A lubricating lotion or cream should be used to avoid abrading the skin.
tapping (tap'ing).1. [O. Fr. taper, of imitative origin]. 1. Percussion in massage. SYN: tapotement. 2. taeppa, tap]. Removal of fluid from a cavity. SYN: paracentesis.

tarsal (tar'sal) [Gr. tarsalis]. 1. Pert. to the tarsus or supporting plate of the eyelid. 2. Pert. to the ankle or tarsus.

tarsal bones. The seven bones of the ankle.

tarsalgia (tar-sal'je-a) [Gr. tarsos, a broad, flat surface, + algos, pain]. Pain in tarsus or ankle. May be due to flatfoot, shortening of Achilles tendon, or other causes.

tarsalia (tar-sa'le-a) [L.]. (sing. tarsale) The tarsal bones.

tarsalis (tar-sa'lis) [L.].One of the tarsal muscles.

tarsal tunnel. In the ankle, the bony-fibrous passage for the posterior tibial vessels, tibial nerve, and flexor tendons.

tarsal tunnel syndrome. Neuropathy of the distal portion of the tibial nerve at the ankle due to chronic pressure on the nerve at the point it passes through the tarsal tunnel. It causes pain in and numbness of the sole of the foot and weakness of plantar flexion of the toes.

tarsectomy (tar-sek'to-me) ["    +    ektome, excision]. Excision of tarsus or a tarsal bone.

tarsectopia (tar"sek-to'pe-a). Dislocation of the tarsus.

tarsi. PL. of tarsus.

tarsitis (tar-si'tis) ["    +    itis, inflammation]. 1. Inflammation of tarsus of the foot.

tarsoclasia, tarsoclasis
(tar'so-kla'se-a. tar-sok'las-is) [" + klasis, a breaking]. Surgical fracture of the tarsus for correction of clubfoot.

 tarsomegaly (tar"so-meg'a-le) [" + megas, large]. Enlargement of the heel bone, calcaneus.

tarsophalangeal (tar"so-fa-lan'je-al) ["    + phalanx, closely knit row]. Concerning the tarsus of the foot and the phalanges of the toes.

tarsoptosis (tar"sop-to'sis) [" + ptosis, falling]. Flat foot; fallen arch of the foot.

tarsotarsal (tar"so-tar'sal) ["    + torsos, a broad, flat surface]. Concerning the articulation between two rows of tarsal bones.

(tar"so-tib'e-al) [" + L. tibia, shinbone]. Concerning the tarsus and the tibia of the foot.

tarsus (tar'sus) [Gr. tarsos, a broad, flat surface]. (pl. tarsi) 1. The ankle with its seven bones located between bones of the lower leg and metatarsus. It forms the proximal portion of the foot. It consists of the following bones: calcaneus (os calcis), talus (astragalus), cuboid (os cuboideum), navicular (scaphoid), and first, second, and third cuneiform bones. The talus articulates with the tibia and fibula, the cuboid and cuneiform bones with the metatarsals.
tautomeral, tautomeric (taw-tom'er-al, -to mer ik) ["    +    meros, a part]. Noting certain neurons that send processes to the white matter on the same side of the spinal cord.

tautomerase (taw-tom'er-as) ["    +    " -ase, enzyme]. An enzyme that catalyzes tautomeric reactions.

T cells. Prothymocytes from the bone marrow migrate to the thymus, where they develop into thymic lymphoid cells, T cells, and begin to mature. From the thymus they go to a particular area of the peripheral lymphoid tissues and from there they circulate between blood and lymph. Three subpopulations of T cells are known: helper or cooperator cells (T4,), which enhance the production of antibody-forming cells from B lymphocytes; cytotoxic or killer T cells, which are formed after mature T cells interact with some antigens present on foreign cells-these cells cause graft rejection and kill foreign cells in vitro; suppressor T cells, which suppress production of antibody forming cells from B lymphocytes.

technical (tek'ni-kal) [Gr. tekhnikos, skilled]. Requiring technique or special skill.

technician (tek-nish'an) An individual who has the knowledge and skill required to carry out specific technical procedures. This individual usually has a diploma from a specialized school or an associate degree from college, or has received training through preceptorship.
t., elctromyographic. Technician who assists the physician in recording and analyzing bioelectric potentials that originate in muscle tissue. This includes the operation of various electronic devices, maintenance of electronic equipment, assisting with patient care during testing, and record keeping.
t., orthopedic.    Technician    who    is trained in maintaining traction devices, applies all types of traction, makes casts, and applies splints,
technique (tek-nek') [Fr., Gr. technikos]. 1. Systematic procedure or methods by which an involved or scientific task is completed. 2. The skill in performing details of a procedure or operation.

technology (tek-nol'o-je) ["    +    logos, word, reason]. 1. The application of scientific knowledge. 2. The entire scientific knowledge used in solving or approaching problems and situations. 3. The entire body of knowledge available to a civilization.

tectospinal (tek"to-spi'nal) [L. tectum, roof,   +    spina, thorn]. From the tectum mesencephali to the spinal cord.

tectospinal tract.
A tract of white fibers of the spinal cord passing from the tectum of the midbrain and going down through the medulla to the spinal cord. It begins on one side and crosses to the other.

tectum (tek'tum) [L., roof]. 1. Any structure serving as, or resembling, a roof. 2. The dorsal portion of the midbrain consisting of the superior and inferior colliculi (corpora quadrigemina). SYN: tegmentum.

teinodynia (ti'no-din'e-a) [Gr. tenon, tendon, + odyne, pain]. Pain in the tendons. SYN: tenalgia; tenodynia.

telalgia (tel-al'je-a) [Gr. tele, distant, + algos, pain]. Pain felt at a distance from its stimulus. SYN: referred pain.

teleceptor (tel'e-sep"tor) ["    +    L. ceptor, a receiver]. A distance receptor; a sense organ that responds to stimuli arising some distance from the body, such as the eye, ear, and nose. SYN: teloceptor.

telecinesia (tel"e-sin-e'ze-a) ["    +    kinesis, movement]. Apparent automatic movement of an object produced without contact with any stimulus or power.

teledendrite, teledendron (tel-e-den'dist, -den'dron) [Gr. telos, end, + dendron, a tree]. The terminal processes of an axon. SYN: telodendron.

telencephalic (tel"en-sef-al'ik) [Gr. telos, end,    +    enkephalos, brain]. Pert. to the endbrain(telencephalon).

telencephalization (tel"en-sef"al-i-za' shun). The evolutionary degree of control over functions previously mediated by lower nerve centers.

telencephalon (tel-en-sef-a-lon) [        enkephalos, brain]. The embryonic endbrain or posterior division of the prosencephalon from which the cerebral hemispheres, corpora striata, and rhinencephalon develop.

teleneurite (tel"e-nu'rit) [" + neuron, nerve]. The branching end of an axon.

teleneuron (tel"e-nu'ron) [" + neuron, nerve]. A nerve ending.

teletypewriter. ABBR: TTY. A typewriter that may be connected to a telephone. Use of this device permits deaf persons to communicate by sending and receiving typewritten messages.

telodendron (tel-o-den'dron) [Gr. telos, end, + dendron, tree]. The more or less diffuse arborizations at the end of an axon or its collaterals. SYN: teledendrite.

telophragma (tel"o-frag'ma) [" + phragmos, a fencing in}. The Z line or disk in striated muscle. SEE: Z disk.

temperament (tem'per-a-ment) [L. temperamentum, mixture]. The combination of intellectual, emotional, ethical, and physical characteristics of a specific individual.
temperate (tem'per-it). Moderate; not excessive.

temporoparietal (tem"po-ro-pa-rietal) [" +    paries, wall]. Concerning the temporal bone and parietal bones.

temporopontine ["    +    pons, bridge]. Concerning or situated between the temporal lobe of the brain and the pons.

temporosphenoid (tem"po-ro-sfe'noyd) [" +    Gr. sphen, wedge, + eidos, form, shape]. Pert. to the temporal and sphenoid bones.

temporozygomatic (tem"po-ro-zi"gomat'ik) [" + Gr. zygoma, cheekbone]. Concerning the temporal and zygomatic bones.