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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.19.
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
Tabes to temporozygomatic | tenalgia to tibiotarsal | tenosynovitis to tissue |
torticollar to tympanic
Tabes (ta'bez) [L., wasting disease]. A gradual, progressive wasting
in any chronic disease.
t. dorsalis. Sclerosis
of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. SYN: ataxia, locomotor.
SYM: Postural instability, esp. when eyes are closed, and a staggering
wide-base gait are characteristic; hence the name locomotor ataxia. Pain
and paresthesias are common, esp. lightning pains, described as sharp,
stabbing, and paroxyamal. Ankle and knee reflexes are diminished or
lost. Many symptoms characteristic of syphilis such as pupillary
changes, optic atrophy, bladder disturbances, and development of trophic
ulcers, esp. on feet, make diagnosis certain.
tactile localization. An individual's ability to accurately identify
the site of tactile stimulation (touch, pressure, or pain). Tactile
localization is often tested in sensory evaluations following disease or
trauma of the nervous system.
tactile system. That
portion of the nervous system concerned with the sensation of touch.
Includes sensory nerve endings (Meissner's corpuscles, Merkel's tactile
disks, hair-root endings), afferent nerve fibers, conducting pathways in
the cord and brain, and sensory (somesthetic) area of cerebral cortex.
Tali (ta'li). Pl. of
[L. talus, ankle, + pes, foot]. Clubfooted. SEE:
talipes (talli-pez) [L.
talus, ankle, + pes, foot]. Any of a number of
deformities of the foot, esp. those occurring congenitally; a
nontraumatic deviation of the foot in the direction of one or the other
of the four lines of movement, or of two of these combined. SYN:
t. calcaneus. Talipes
in which the foot is flexed and the heel alone touches the ground,
causing the patient to walk on the inner side of the heel. Often follows
infantile paralysis of the muscle of Achilles tendon.
t. cavus. T. arcuatus.
t. equinus. Talipes in
which the foot is extended and the person walks on the toes.
t. peicavus. Talipes in
which there is excessive plantar curvature.
t. valgus. Talipes in
which the heel and foot are turned outward.
t. varus. Talipes in
which the heel is turned inward, away from the midline.
(ta"lo-kal-ka'ne-al) [" + calcaneus, heel bone]. Pert. to the talus and
calcaneus, bones of the tarsus.
[" + crus, leg]. Pert. to the talus and leg bones.
The ankle joint, a ginglymus or hinge joint.
(ta"lo-fib'u-lar) [" + fibula, pin]. Concerning the talus and fibula.
(ta"lo-na-vik'u-1ar) [L. talus, ankle, +- navicula, boat]. Concerning
the talus and navicular bones.
(ta"lo-tib'e-al) [" + tibia, shin bone]. Concerning the talus and tibial
talus (ta'lus) [L.,
ankle]. (pl. tali) [NA] The ankle bone articulating with the tibia,
fibula, calcaneus, and navicular bone. Formerly called astragalus.
[Fr.]. Percussion in massage. It is divided into beating with the
clenched hand, used for sciatica and muscular atrophy; clapping
performed with the palm of the hand, used to reach superficial nerves;
hacking with the ulnar border of the hand, used principally around a
nerve center and upon the muscles; punctuation with the tips of the
fingers, used principally around the heart and upon the head.
The strength of the manipulations is an essential factor in the massage
treatment, and care must be taken not to bruise the patient. As a rule,
begin with moderate pressure, ascertaining from the patient his
sensation. A lubricating lotion or cream should be used to avoid
abrading the skin.
tapping (tap'ing).1. [O. Fr. taper, of imitative origin]. 1. Percussion
in massage. SYN: tapotement. 2. taeppa, tap]. Removal of fluid from a
cavity. SYN: paracentesis.
tarsal (tar'sal) [Gr.
tarsalis]. 1. Pert. to the tarsus or supporting plate of the eyelid. 2.
Pert. to the ankle or tarsus.
tarsal bones. The seven
bones of the ankle.
[Gr. tarsos, a broad, flat surface, + algos, pain]. Pain in tarsus or
ankle. May be due to flatfoot, shortening of Achilles tendon, or other
[L.]. (sing. tarsale) The tarsal bones.
[L.].One of the tarsal muscles.
tarsal tunnel. In the
ankle, the bony-fibrous passage for the posterior tibial vessels, tibial
nerve, and flexor tendons.
tarsal tunnel syndrome. Neuropathy
of the distal portion of the tibial nerve at the ankle due to chronic
pressure on the nerve at the point it passes through the tarsal tunnel.
It causes pain in and numbness of the sole of the foot and weakness of
plantar flexion of the toes.
[" + ektome, excision]. Excision
of tarsus or a tarsal bone.
Dislocation of the tarsus.
tarsi. PL. of tarsus.
[" + itis, inflammation]. 1.
Inflammation of tarsus of the foot.
tarsoclasia, tarsoclasis (tar'so-kla'se-a. tar-sok'las-is) [" +
klasis, a breaking]. Surgical fracture of the tarsus for correction of
[" + megas, large]. Enlargement of the heel bone, calcaneus.
[" + phalanx, closely knit row]. Concerning the
tarsus of the foot and the phalanges of the toes.
[" + ptosis, falling]. Flat foot; fallen arch of the foot.
[" + torsos, a broad, flat surface]. Concerning the
articulation between two rows of tarsal bones.
tarsotibial (tar"so-tib'e-al) [" + L. tibia, shinbone].
Concerning the tarsus and the tibia of the foot.
tarsus (tar'sus) [Gr.
tarsos, a broad, flat surface]. (pl. tarsi) 1. The ankle with its seven
bones located between bones of the lower leg and metatarsus. It forms
the proximal portion of the foot. It consists of the following bones:
calcaneus (os calcis), talus (astragalus), cuboid (os cuboideum),
navicular (scaphoid), and first, second, and third cuneiform bones. The
talus articulates with the tibia and fibula, the cuboid and cuneiform
bones with the metatarsals.
tautomeral, tautomeric (taw-tom'er-al,
-to mer ik) [" + meros, a part].
Noting certain neurons that send processes to the white matter on the
same side of the spinal cord.
(taw-tom'er-as) [" + " -ase,
enzyme]. An enzyme that catalyzes tautomeric reactions.
T cells. Prothymocytes
from the bone marrow migrate to the thymus, where they develop into
thymic lymphoid cells, T cells, and begin to mature. From the thymus
they go to a particular area of the peripheral lymphoid tissues and from
there they circulate between blood and lymph. Three subpopulations of T
cells are known: helper or cooperator cells (T4,), which enhance the
production of antibody-forming cells from B lymphocytes; cytotoxic or
killer T cells, which are formed after mature T cells interact with
some antigens present on foreign cells-these cells cause graft rejection
and kill foreign cells in vitro; suppressor T cells, which suppress
production of antibody forming cells from B lymphocytes.
[Gr. tekhnikos, skilled]. Requiring technique or special skill.
An individual who has the knowledge and skill required to carry out
specific technical procedures. This individual usually has a diploma
from a specialized school or an associate degree from college, or has
received training through preceptorship.
Technician who assists the physician in recording and analyzing
bioelectric potentials that originate in muscle tissue. This includes
the operation of various electronic devices, maintenance of electronic
equipment, assisting with patient care during testing, and record
Technician who is trained in
maintaining traction devices, applies all types of traction, makes
casts, and applies splints,
technique (tek-nek') [Fr., Gr. technikos]. 1. Systematic procedure or
methods by which an involved or scientific task is completed. 2. The
skill in performing details of a procedure or operation.
(tek-nol'o-je) [" + logos, word,
reason]. 1. The application of scientific knowledge. 2. The entire
scientific knowledge used in solving or approaching problems and
situations. 3. The entire body of knowledge available to a civilization.
(tek"to-spi'nal) [L. tectum, roof, +
spina, thorn]. From the tectum mesencephali to the spinal cord.
tectospinal tract. A tract of white fibers of the spinal cord
passing from the tectum of the midbrain and going down through the
medulla to the spinal cord. It begins on one side and crosses to the
tectum (tek'tum) [L.,
roof]. 1. Any structure serving as, or resembling, a roof. 2. The dorsal
portion of the midbrain consisting of the superior and inferior
colliculi (corpora quadrigemina). SYN: tegmentum.
[Gr. tenon, tendon, + odyne, pain]. Pain in the tendons. SYN: tenalgia;
[Gr. tele, distant, + algos, pain]. Pain felt at a distance from its
stimulus. SYN: referred pain.
(tel'e-sep"tor) [" + L. ceptor, a
receiver]. A distance receptor; a sense organ that responds to stimuli
arising some distance from the body, such as the eye, ear, and nose.
(tel"e-sin-e'ze-a) [" + kinesis,
movement]. Apparent automatic movement of an object produced without
contact with any stimulus or power.
(tel-e-den'dist, -den'dron) [Gr. telos, end, + dendron, a tree]. The
terminal processes of an axon. SYN: telodendron.
[Gr. telos, end, + enkephalos,
brain]. Pert. to the endbrain(telencephalon).
(tel"en-sef"al-i-za' shun). The evolutionary degree of control over
functions previously mediated by lower nerve centers.
[ enkephalos, brain]. The
embryonic endbrain or posterior division of the prosencephalon from
which the cerebral hemispheres, corpora striata, and rhinencephalon
(tel"e-nu'rit) [" + neuron, nerve]. The branching end of an axon.
[" + neuron, nerve]. A nerve ending.
TTY. A typewriter that may be connected to a telephone. Use of this
device permits deaf persons to communicate by sending and receiving
(tel-o-den'dron) [Gr. telos, end, + dendron, tree]. The more or less
diffuse arborizations at the end of an axon or its collaterals. SYN:
(tel"o-frag'ma) [" + phragmos, a fencing in}. The Z line or disk in
striated muscle. SEE: Z disk.
[L. temperamentum, mixture]. The combination of intellectual,
emotional, ethical, and physical characteristics of a specific
Moderate; not excessive.
(tem"po-ro-pa-rietal) [" + paries, wall]. Concerning
the temporal bone and parietal bones.
[" + pons, bridge]. Concerning or
situated between the temporal lobe of the brain and the pons.
(tem"po-ro-sfe'noyd) [" + Gr. sphen, wedge, + eidos,
form, shape]. Pert. to the temporal and sphenoid bones.
(tem"po-ro-zi"gomat'ik) [" + Gr. zygoma, cheekbone]. Concerning the
temporal and zygomatic bones.