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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.18.

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


sacrad to spasm,    spasmophilia to spondylitic   spondylitis to supinator   supraliminal to systremma

spondylitis (spon-dil-i-tis) [ + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of one or more vertebrae; esp. tuberculous disease of the vertebrae, Pott's disease.
s., ankylosing. S., rheumatoid.
s. deformans. Inflammation of the vertebral joints resulting in the outgrowth of bonylike deposits on the vertebrae, which may fuse and cause rigid and distorted spine.
s., hypertrophic. Condition occurring in most people over 50 in which bodies of vertebrae hypertrophy. Bony changes such as slipping at bases, and the development of bony outgrowths on articular processes occur.
s., Kummell's. Traumatic spondylitis in which symptoms do not appear until some time after the injury.
s., Marie-Strumpell. S., rheumatoid.
s., rheumatoid. A chronic progressive disease involving the joints between articular processes, costovertebral joints, and sacroiliac joints. Bilateral sclerosis of sacroiliac joints is a diagnostic sign. Changes occurring in joints are similar to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis. Ankylosis may occur, giving rise to stiff back (poker spine). SYN: s., ankylosing.
s., tuberculous. SEE: Pott's disease.

spondylizema (spon-dil-i-ze-ma) [Gr. spondylos, vertebra, + izema, depression]. Downward displacement of a vertebra caused by the disintegration of the one below it.

spondylo- [Gr. spondylos, vertebra]. Combining form meaning a vertebra.

spondylocace (spon"di-lok'a-se) [" + kake, badness]. Tuberculosis of the vertebrae. SYN: spondylarthrocace.

spondylodiagnosis (spon-di-lo-di-agno-sis) [ + dia, through, + gnosis, knowledge]. Diagnosis by means of visceral reflexes obtained by percussion of the vertebrae.

spondylodynia (spon-di-lo-din-e-a) [+ odyne, pain]. Pain in a vertebra.

spondylolisthesis (spon-di-lo-lis-the-sis) [ + oblisthesis, a slipping]. Forward subluxation of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the sacrum.

spondylolisthetic (spon-di-lo-lis-thet-ik). Concerning spondylolisthesis.

spondylolysis (spon-di-loi-i-sis) [ + lysis, dissolution]. The breaking down of a vertebral structure.

spondylomalacia (spon-di-la-ma-la-she-a) [" + malakia, softening]. Softening of the vertebrae.

spondylopathy (spon-dil-op-a-the) [ + pathos, disease, suffering]. Any disorder of the vertebrae.

spondyloptosis (spon'di-lop-to'sis) [ + ptosis, a dropping]. Spondylolisthesis, spondylopyosis (spon"di-lo"pi-o'sis) [" + pyosis, suppuration]. Suppuration with inflammation of a vertebra.

spondyloschisis spondylosis (spon-di-lo'sis) [Gr. spondylos, vertebra, + osis, condition]. Vertebral ankylosis. s., cervical or lumbar. Degenerative arthritis, osteoarthritis, of the cervical or lumbar vertebrae and related tissues. It may cause pressure on nerve roots with subsequent pain or paresthesia in the extremities.
s., rhizomelic. Ankylosis interfering with movements of hips and shoulders.

spondylosyndesis (spon-di-lo-sin-de-sis) [ + syndesis, a binding together]. Surgical formation of an ankylosis between vertebrae.

spondylotherapy (spon"dil-o-ther'a-pe) [" + therapeia,treatment]. Spinal therapeutics; spinal manipulation in the treatment of disease.

spondylotomy (spdn"dil-ot'o-me) [" + tome, incision]. Removal of part of the vertebral column to correct a deformity or facilitate delivery of a fetus. SYN: rachitomy.

spondylous (spon'di-Ins) [Gr. spondylos, vertebra]. Concerning a vertebra.

sprain (spran) [O. Fr. espraindre, to wring]. Trauma to a joint that causes pain and disability depending upon degree of injury to ligaments. In severe sprain, ligaments may be completely torn. The ankle joint is the most often sprained. SYM: The signs of a sprain are rapid swelling, heat, and disability; often discoloration and limitation of function. It is important to understand that the intensity of the symptoms and signs may not be accurate indicators of the difference between a sprain and a fracture. TREAT: During the first 24 to 48 hours, use cold compresses, bandage, and elevate the joint. After initial treatment with cold, apply heat. If recovery proves slow, immobilization of the joint is indicated followed by careful massage.
s, of ankle or foot. Trauma to the ankle or foot or both, with soft tissue and possibly ligament and tendon injury, but without fracture.
SYM: Pain, tenderness, swelling, ecchymosis of area, and limitation of motion. TREAT: Treat as a fracture until the results of radiological studies of the ankle and foot are available. If there is no fracture, immobilize and elevate the lower extremity, apply cold for 24 hours (do not apply ice directly to the foot and ankle). Analgesics and nonstetoidal anti-inflammatory agents may be required. If a ligament is partially or completely torn, it may be necessary to immobilize the lower extremity by applying a cast.
s. of back. Overstretching of muscles, ligaments, or other spinal structures, often associated with small fractures. SYM: Pain, esp. on extreme movements; tenderness; muscle spasm. TREAT: If patient is supine, keep him in that position; if not, have him lie down on rigid support; do not allow to sit up or walk until fracture is ruled out. Intermittent heat, rest, with adhesive strapping, brace, etc. After acute symptoms have subsided, physical therapy is prescribed.
s., riders'. Sprain of the adductor longus muscles of the thigh, resulting from strain in riding horseback.

sprain fracture. The separation of a tendon or ligament from its insertion, taking with it a piece of the bone.

spring finger. Arrested movement of a finger in flexion or extension followed by a jerk. SYN: trigger finger.

spring ligament. Interior calcaneoscaphoid ligament of the sole of the foot. It joins the oscalcis to the scaphoid bone.

sterebra (ster'ne-bra) [" + L. vertebra, vertebra]. Parts of the sternum prior to fusion. sternen (ster'nen) [Gr. sternon, chest]. Concerning the sternum and no other structures.

sterno- [Gr. sternon, chest]. Combining form meaning sternum.

sternoclavicular (ster"no-kla-vik'u-lar) [" + L. clauicula, little key]. Concerning the sternum and clavicle.SYM: Pain, tenderness, swelling, ecchymosis of area, and limitation of motion.

sternocleidomastoid (ster"no-kli'do-mas' toyd) [" + clavis, key, + mastos, breast, + eidos, form, shape]. One of two muscles arising from the sternum and inner part of the clavicle.

sternocostal (ster"no-kos'tal) [" + L. costa, rib]. Rel. to sternum and ribs. sternodynia (ster"no-din'e-a) [" + odyne, pain]. Pain in the sternum. SYN: sternalgia.

sternohyoid (ster"no-hi'oyd) [" + hyoeides, U-shaped]. Muscle from the medial end of the clavicle and sternum to the hyoid bone. sternoid (ster'noyd) [" + eidos, form, shape]. Resembling the breastbone.

sternomastoid (ster"no-mas'toyd) [" + mastos, breast, + eidos, form, shape]. Pert. to the sternum and mastoid process of the temporal bone. sternomastoid region. Wide area on lateral region of the neck covered by sternocleidomastoid muscle.

sternopagia (ster"no-pa'je-a) [" + pagos, thing fixed]. Sternodymia.

sternopericardial (ster"no-per"i-kai de-al) [" + peri, around, + kardia, heart]. Concerning the sternum and pericardium.

sternoschisis (ster-nos'ki-sis) [" + schisis, a splitting]. A cleft or fissured sternum.

sternothyroid (ster"no-thi'royd) [" + thyreos, shield, + eidos, form, shape] Muscle extending beneath the sternohyoid that depresses thyroid cartilage.

sternotomy (ster-not'o-me [" + tome, incision]. The operation of cutting through the sternum. sternotrachea! (ster"no-tra'ke-al) [" + tracheia, trachea]. Concerning the sternum and trachea.

sternotrypesis (ster"no-tri-pe'sis) [" + trypesis, a boring]. Surgical perforation of the sternum.

sternovertebral (ster'no-ver'te-bral) [" + L. uertebra, vertebra]. Concerning the sternum and vertebrae. sternum (ster'num) [L.]. [NA] The narrow, flat bone in the median line of the thorax in front. It consists of three portions distinguished as the manubrium, the gladiolus, and the ensiform or xiphoid process RS: breast, chicken; chondrosternal; cleft; ensiform; gladiolus; manubrium; xiphoid process. s; cleft. Congenital fissure of the sternum.

Stimulus (stim'u-lus) [L., a goad]. (pl. stimuli) 1. Any agent or factor able to influence living protoplasm directly, as one capable of causing muscular contraction or secretion in a gland, or of initiating an impulse in a nerve. 2. A change of environment of sufficient intensity to evoke a response in an organism. 3. An excitant or irritant. s., liminal. S., threshold. s., mechanical Stimulus produced by a physical change such as contact with objects or changes in pressure.
s., minimal. S., threshold.
s., nociceptive. A painful and usually injurious stimulus.
s., subliminal. Stimulus that is weaker than a threshold stimulus.
s., thermal. Stimulus produced by a change in temperature of the skin, a rise giving sensations of warmth, a fall giving sensations of coldness.
s., threshold. The least or weakest stimulus that is capable of initiating a response or giving rise to a sensation. SYN: s., liminal.
s., unconditioned. Any stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response, i.e., a response that was inherently present rather than one that was learned.

stress (stres) [0. Fr. estresse, narrowness]. In medicine, the result produced when a structure, system, or organism is acted upon by forces that disrupt equilibrium or produce strain. In health care, the term denotes the physical (gravity, mechanical force, pathogen, injury) and psychological (fear, anxiety, crisis, joy) forces that are experienced by individuals. It is generally believed that biological organisms require a certain amount of stress in order to maintain their well-being. However when stress occurs in quantities that the system cannot handle, it produces pathological changes. This biological concept of stress was developed by the late Hans Selye, who intended originally for stress to indicate cause rather than effect. But through a linguistic error, he gave the term stress to effect and later had to use the word stressor for the cause. In physical sciences, stress may be equated to certain types of forces (for example: impact, sheer, torsion compression, and tension) that result in deformation or fracture of the material being stressed or tested. In dentistry, the pressure of the upper teeth on the lower teeth in mastication produces stress. Mechanical forces of tension, compression, shear, or torsion may all be applied to teeth or dental prostheses during the movements of mastication and represent stress.

Stress fracture. A fine hairline fracture that appears without evidence of soft tissue injury. This type of fracture is difficult to diagnose by roentgenographic examination and may not become visible until 3 to 4 weeks after the onset of symptoms. It may occur in runners who are running too much, too fast, with improper shoes, and on hard surfaces.

stretching of contractures. Process performed to loosen contracted ligaments, muscles, and adhesions in stiff joints. There should be a slow, steady, and gradually increasing pull by the operator or with gradually increasing weights.

stretch receptor. A proprioceptor located in a muscle or tendon that is stimulated by a stretch or pull.

stretch reflex. The contraction of a muscle as a result of a pull exerted upon the tendon of the responding muscle. Stretch reflexes are of primary importance in maintenance of posture. SYN: myotactic reflex.

subjective [L. subjectivus]. Arising from or concerned with the individual; not perceptible to an observer. Opposite of objective. subjective sensation. A sensation occurring when stimuli due to internal causes excite the nervous system; one not of objective origin. subscapular (sub-skap'u-lar) [" + scapula, shoulder blade]. Below the scapula.

subspinous (sub-spi'nus) [" + spina, thorn]. 1. Beneath any spinous process. 2. Anterior to or beneath the spinal column.

subspinous dislocation. Dislocation with head of the humerus resting below spine of the scapula.

supinate (su'pi-nat) [L. supinatus, bent backward].1. To turn the forearm or hand so that the palm faces upward. 2. To rotate the foot and leg outward. 3. To cause to assume, or to assume, a position of supination. supination (su"pin-a'shun) [L. supinatio]. 1. Turning of the palm or foot upward. 2. Act of lying flat upon the back. 3. Condition of being on the back or having the foot or palm facing upward.

supinator (su"pin-a'tor) [L.]. A muscle producing the motion of supination of the forearm.

supinator longus reflex. Flexion of the forearm caused by tapping of the tendon of the supinatorlongus.