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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.18.
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
to spasm, spasmophilia to spondylitic spondylitis to
supinator supraliminal to systremma
spondylitis (spon-dil-i-tis) [ +
itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of one or more vertebrae; esp.
tuberculous disease of the vertebrae, Pott's disease.
s., ankylosing. S.,
Inflammation of the vertebral joints resulting in the outgrowth of
bonylike deposits on the vertebrae, which may fuse and cause rigid and
Condition occurring in most people over 50 in which bodies of vertebrae
hypertrophy. Bony changes such as slipping at bases, and the development
of bony outgrowths on articular processes occur.
Traumatic spondylitis in which symptoms do not appear until some time
after the injury.
s., rheumatoid. A
chronic progressive disease involving the joints between articular
processes, costovertebral joints, and sacroiliac joints. Bilateral
sclerosis of sacroiliac joints is a diagnostic sign. Changes occurring
in joints are similar to those seen in rheumatoid arthritis. Ankylosis
may occur, giving rise to stiff back (poker spine). SYN: s., ankylosing.
s., tuberculous. SEE:
(spon-dil-i-ze-ma) [Gr. spondylos, vertebra, + izema, depression].
Downward displacement of a vertebra caused by the disintegration of the
one below it.
spondylos, vertebra]. Combining form meaning a vertebra.
(spon"di-lok'a-se) [" + kake, badness]. Tuberculosis of the vertebrae.
(spon-di-lo-di-agno-sis) [ + dia, through, + gnosis, knowledge].
Diagnosis by means of visceral reflexes obtained by percussion of the
(spon-di-lo-din-e-a) [+ odyne, pain]. Pain in a vertebra.
(spon-di-lo-lis-the-sis) [ + oblisthesis, a slipping]. Forward
subluxation of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the sacrum.
(spon-di-lo-lis-thet-ik). Concerning spondylolisthesis.
(spon-di-loi-i-sis) [ + lysis, dissolution]. The breaking down of a
(spon-di-la-ma-la-she-a) [" + malakia, softening]. Softening of the
(spon-dil-op-a-the) [ + pathos, disease, suffering]. Any disorder of
(spon'di-lop-to'sis) [ + ptosis, a dropping]. Spondylolisthesis,
spondylopyosis (spon"di-lo"pi-o'sis) [" + pyosis, suppuration].
Suppuration with inflammation of a vertebra.
(spon-di-lo'sis) [Gr. spondylos, vertebra, + osis, condition]. Vertebral
ankylosis. s., cervical or lumbar. Degenerative arthritis,
osteoarthritis, of the cervical or lumbar vertebrae and related
tissues. It may cause pressure on nerve roots with subsequent pain or
paresthesia in the extremities.
s., rhizomelic. Ankylosis
interfering with movements of hips and shoulders.
(spon-di-lo-sin-de-sis) [ + syndesis, a binding together]. Surgical
formation of an ankylosis between vertebrae.
(spon"dil-o-ther'a-pe) [" + therapeia,treatment]. Spinal therapeutics;
spinal manipulation in the treatment of disease.
(spdn"dil-ot'o-me) [" + tome, incision]. Removal of part of the
vertebral column to correct a deformity or facilitate delivery of a
fetus. SYN: rachitomy.
[Gr. spondylos, vertebra]. Concerning a vertebra.
sprain (spran) [O. Fr.
espraindre, to wring]. Trauma to a joint that causes pain and disability
depending upon degree of injury to ligaments. In severe sprain,
ligaments may be completely torn. The ankle joint is the most often
sprained. SYM: The signs of a sprain are rapid swelling, heat, and
disability; often discoloration and limitation of function. It is
important to understand that the intensity of the symptoms and signs may
not be accurate indicators of the difference between a sprain and a
fracture. TREAT: During the first 24 to 48 hours, use cold compresses,
bandage, and elevate the joint. After initial treatment with cold, apply
heat. If recovery proves slow, immobilization of the joint is indicated
followed by careful massage.
s, of ankle or foot.
Trauma to the ankle or foot or both, with soft tissue and possibly
ligament and tendon injury, but without fracture.
SYM: Pain, tenderness, swelling, ecchymosis of area, and limitation of
motion. TREAT: Treat as a fracture until the results of radiological
studies of the ankle and foot are available. If there is no fracture,
immobilize and elevate the lower extremity, apply cold for 24 hours (do
not apply ice directly to the foot and ankle). Analgesics and
nonstetoidal anti-inflammatory agents may be required. If a ligament is
partially or completely torn, it may be necessary to immobilize the
lower extremity by applying a cast.
s. of back.
Overstretching of muscles, ligaments, or other spinal structures, often
associated with small fractures. SYM: Pain, esp. on extreme movements;
tenderness; muscle spasm. TREAT: If patient is supine, keep him in that
position; if not, have him lie down on rigid support; do not allow to
sit up or walk until fracture is ruled out. Intermittent heat, rest,
with adhesive strapping, brace, etc. After acute symptoms have subsided,
physical therapy is prescribed.
s., riders'. Sprain of
the adductor longus muscles of the thigh, resulting from strain in
sprain fracture. The
separation of a tendon or ligament from its insertion, taking with it a
piece of the bone.
spring finger. Arrested
movement of a finger in flexion or extension followed by a jerk. SYN:
Interior calcaneoscaphoid ligament of the sole of the foot. It joins the
oscalcis to the scaphoid bone.
[" + L. vertebra, vertebra]. Parts of the sternum prior to fusion.
sternen (ster'nen) [Gr. sternon, chest]. Concerning the sternum and no
sterno- [Gr. sternon,
chest]. Combining form meaning sternum.
(ster"no-kla-vik'u-lar) [" + L. clauicula, little key]. Concerning the
sternum and clavicle.SYM: Pain, tenderness, swelling, ecchymosis of
area, and limitation of motion.
(ster"no-kli'do-mas' toyd) [" + clavis, key, + mastos, breast, + eidos,
form, shape]. One of two muscles arising from the sternum and inner part
of the clavicle.
(ster"no-kos'tal) [" + L. costa, rib]. Rel. to sternum and ribs.
sternodynia (ster"no-din'e-a) [" + odyne, pain]. Pain in the sternum.
(ster"no-hi'oyd) [" + hyoeides, U-shaped]. Muscle from the medial end of
the clavicle and sternum to the hyoid bone. sternoid (ster'noyd) [" +
eidos, form, shape]. Resembling the breastbone.
(ster"no-mas'toyd) [" + mastos, breast, + eidos, form, shape]. Pert. to
the sternum and mastoid process of the temporal bone. sternomastoid
region. Wide area on lateral region of the neck covered by
(ster"no-pa'je-a) [" + pagos, thing fixed]. Sternodymia.
(ster"no-per"i-kai de-al) [" + peri, around, + kardia, heart].
Concerning the sternum and pericardium.
(ster-nos'ki-sis) [" + schisis, a splitting]. A cleft or fissured
(ster"no-thi'royd) [" + thyreos, shield, + eidos, form, shape] Muscle
extending beneath the sternohyoid that depresses thyroid cartilage.
(ster-not'o-me [" + tome, incision]. The operation of cutting through
the sternum. sternotrachea! (ster"no-tra'ke-al) [" + tracheia, trachea].
Concerning the sternum and trachea.
(ster"no-tri-pe'sis) [" + trypesis, a boring]. Surgical perforation of
(ster'no-ver'te-bral) [" + L. uertebra, vertebra]. Concerning the
sternum and vertebrae. sternum (ster'num) [L.]. [NA] The narrow, flat
bone in the median line of the thorax in front. It consists of three
portions distinguished as the manubrium, the gladiolus, and the
ensiform or xiphoid process RS: breast, chicken; chondrosternal; cleft;
ensiform; gladiolus; manubrium; xiphoid process. s; cleft. Congenital
fissure of the sternum.
[L., a goad]. (pl. stimuli) 1. Any agent or factor able to influence
living protoplasm directly, as one capable of causing muscular
contraction or secretion in a gland, or of initiating an impulse in a
nerve. 2. A change of environment of sufficient intensity to evoke a
response in an organism. 3. An excitant or irritant. s., liminal. S.,
threshold. s., mechanical Stimulus produced by a physical change such as
contact with objects or changes in pressure.
s., minimal. S.,
s., nociceptive. A
painful and usually injurious stimulus.
Stimulus that is weaker than a threshold stimulus.
s., thermal. Stimulus
produced by a change in temperature of the skin, a rise giving
sensations of warmth, a fall giving sensations of coldness.
s., threshold. The
least or weakest stimulus that is capable of initiating a response or
giving rise to a sensation. SYN: s., liminal.
s., unconditioned. Any
stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response, i.e., a response that
was inherently present rather than one that was learned.
stress (stres) [0. Fr.
estresse, narrowness]. In medicine, the result produced when a
structure, system, or organism is acted upon by forces that disrupt
equilibrium or produce strain. In health care, the term denotes the
physical (gravity, mechanical force, pathogen, injury) and psychological
(fear, anxiety, crisis, joy) forces that are experienced by individuals.
It is generally believed that biological organisms require a certain
amount of stress in order to maintain their well-being. However when
stress occurs in quantities that the system cannot handle, it produces
pathological changes. This biological concept of stress was developed by
the late Hans Selye, who intended originally for stress to indicate
cause rather than effect. But through a linguistic error, he gave the
term stress to effect and later had to use the word stressor for the
cause. In physical sciences, stress may be equated to certain types of
forces (for example: impact, sheer, torsion compression, and tension)
that result in deformation or fracture of the material being stressed or
tested. In dentistry, the pressure of the upper teeth on the lower teeth
in mastication produces stress. Mechanical forces of tension,
compression, shear, or torsion may all be applied to teeth or dental
prostheses during the movements of mastication and represent stress.
Stress fracture. A fine
hairline fracture that appears without evidence of soft tissue injury.
This type of fracture is difficult to diagnose by roentgenographic
examination and may not become visible until 3 to 4 weeks after the
onset of symptoms. It may occur in runners who are running too much,
too fast, with improper shoes, and on hard surfaces.
stretching of contractures. Process performed to loosen
contracted ligaments, muscles, and adhesions in stiff joints. There
should be a slow, steady, and gradually increasing pull by the operator
or with gradually increasing weights.
stretch receptor. A proprioceptor located in a muscle or
tendon that is stimulated by a stretch or pull.
stretch reflex. The contraction of a muscle as a result
of a pull exerted upon the tendon of the responding muscle. Stretch
reflexes are of primary importance in maintenance of posture. SYN:
subjective [L. subjectivus]. Arising from or concerned
with the individual; not perceptible to an observer. Opposite of
objective. subjective sensation. A sensation occurring when stimuli due
to internal causes excite the nervous system; one not of objective
origin. subscapular (sub-skap'u-lar) [" + scapula, shoulder blade].
Below the scapula.
subspinous (sub-spi'nus) [" + spina, thorn]. 1. Beneath
any spinous process. 2. Anterior to or beneath the spinal column.
subspinous dislocation. Dislocation with head of the
humerus resting below spine of the scapula.
supinate (su'pi-nat) [L. supinatus, bent backward].1. To
turn the forearm or hand so that the palm faces upward. 2. To rotate the
foot and leg outward. 3. To cause to assume, or to assume, a position of
supination. supination (su"pin-a'shun) [L. supinatio]. 1. Turning of the
palm or foot upward. 2. Act of lying flat upon the back. 3. Condition of
being on the back or having the foot or palm facing upward.
supinator (su"pin-a'tor) [L.]. A muscle producing the
motion of supination of the forearm.
supinator longus reflex. Flexion of the forearm caused by
tapping of the tendon of the supinatorlongus.