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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.17

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


sacrad to spasm    spasmophilia to spondylitic   spondylitis to supinator   
supraliminal to systremma

spasmophilia (spaz-mo-fil'e-a) [" + philein, to love]. A tendency to tetany and convulsions; almost always associated with rickets.

spastic (spas'tik) [Gr. spastikos, convulsive]. 1. Resembling or of the nature of spasms or convulsions. 2. Produced by spasms. 3. One afflicted with spasms.

spastic gait. A stiff movement with toes seeming to catch together and to drag.

spastic hemiplegia. Partial hemiplegia with spasmodic muscular contractions.

spasticity (spas-tis'i-te). Increased tone or contractions of muscles causing stiff and awkward movements: the result of upper motor neuron lesion.

spastic paralysis. Muscular rigidity accompanying partial paralysis. Usually due to a lesion involving upper motor neurons.

spastic paraplegia. Paraplegia due to transverse lesions of the cord or sclerosis.
spinal canal. Canal of the vertebral column that contains the spinal cord.

spinal column. The vertebral column enclosing the spinal cord and consisting of 33 vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 dorsal or thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral fused to form 1 bone, and 4 in the coccyx fused to form 1 bone. The number is sometimes increased by an additional vertebra in one region, and sometimes one may be absent in another.

spinal cord. An ovoid column of nervous tissue averaging about 44 cm in length, flattened anteroposteriorly, extending from the medulla to the 2nd lumbar vertebra in the spinal canal. All nerves to the trunk and limbs are issued from the spinal cord, and it is the center of reflex action containing the conducting paths to and from the brain. In cross section, it does not fill the vertebral space, being surrounded by the pia mater, the cerebrospinal fluid, the arachnoid, and the dura mater, which fuses with the periosteum of the inner surfaces of the vertebrae.
The gray substance approximates the shape of an "H," there being a posterior and anterior horn in either half. The anterior horn is composed of motor cells from which the fibers making up the motor portions of the peripheral nerves arise. Sensory neurons enter posteriorly. The "H" also divides the surrounding white matter into posterior, lateral, and anterior bundles. These serve to connect brain and cord in both directions (i.e., with efferent and afferent nerves) as well as various portions of the cord itself.

ormal curvature of the spine, frequently constitutional in children. It may be angular, lateral (scoliosis), or anteroposterior (kyphosis, q.v., lordosis, ).
spinal curvature, angular. Caries of the spine. SYN: Pott's disease.
spinal curvature. Abn spinal curvature, lateral. Deviation of spine to one side or the other causing a twist of the spine.

spinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid. When normal, it contains 50 to 75 mg of sugar per 100 ml. The sugar content is lower than that in the blood.

spinal fusion Surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae. This procedure may be done for several conditions including herniated disk.

spinal ganglion. Enlargement on dorsal or posterior root of a spinal nerve composed principally of cell bodies of somatic and visceral afferent neurons. Also called dorsal root ganglion.

spinal nerves. Nerves arising from the spinal cord: 31 pairs, consisting of 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal, corresponding with the spinal vertebrae. Each spinal nerve is attached to the spinal cord by two roots: a dorsal or posterior sensory root and a ventral or anterior root. The former consists of afferent fibers conveying impulses to the cord; the latter of efferent fibers conveying impulses from the cord. A typical spinal nerve, on passing through the intervertebral foramen, divides into four branches, a recurrent branch, a dorsal ramus or posterior primary division, a ventral ramus or anterior primary division, and two rami communicantes (white and gray), which pass to ganglia of the sympathethic trunk.

spinal puncture. Puncture of the spinal cavity with a needle to extract the spinal fluid for diagnostic purposes, to introduce anaesthetic agents into the spinal canal, or to remove fluid so other fluids such as radiopaque substances may be injected.

spinal reflex. Any reflex centering in the spinal cord.

spinal shock. Effects resulting from transverse section of the spinal cord and occurring in segments below level of section. Principal effects are anesthesia, paralysis, loss of muscle tone, and suppression of reflexes, both visceral and somatic.

spinalgia (spi-nal'je-a) [L. spina, thorn, + Gr. algos, pain]. Pain in a vertebra under pressure.

spinalis (spi-na'lis) [L.]. A muscle attached to the spinal process of a vertebra.
spine (spin). 1. A sharp process of bone. 2. The spinal column, consisting of 33 vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal. The bones of the sacrum and coccyx are ankylosed in adult life and counted as one each. SYN: backbone. RS: cephalorhachidian; cord, spinal; spine, suprameatal, cramp; curvature; rachialgia; rachilysis, "rach-" words; scoliosis.
s., alar. Spinous process of the sphenoid bone.
s., anterior nasal. Projection formed by anterior prolongation of the inferior border of the nasal notch of the maxilla.
s., bifid. Spina bifida.
s., fracture of. A fractured spine often is treated in a plaster jacket with the spine hyperextended to reduce the fracture after essential treatment with skeletal traction. A window is cut over the abdomen. If the fracture is high, the neck is included. The jacket must be short enough to allow flexion of the thighs. The patient is allowed to walk in the jacket, which is left on for 3 or 4 months. A vest is put on under this plaster, and the prominences are padded with felt. Traction, Balkan, and Stryker frames are used if the fracture involves the cord with paralysis below the injury. Bedsores and cystitis must be prevented. An enema is given when needed.
s., frontal, Sharp-pointed medial process extending downward from nasal process of frontal bone. SYN: s., nasal.
s., hemal That part of the hemal arch of a typical vertebra that closes it in.
s., Henle"s. S., suprameatal.
s., iliac. One of four spines of the ilium, namely the anterior and posterior inferior spines and the anterior and posterior superior spines.
s., ischial Spine of the ischium, a pointed eminence on its posterior border. SYN: s., sciatic.
s., mental. Small process on the inner surface of mandible at back of the symphysis formed of one or more small projections (genial tubercles).
s., nasal. Sharp process descending in the middle line from the inferior surface of the frontal bone between the superior maxillae.
s., neural. Spinous process of a vertebra. The posterior projection of the neural arch.
s. of pubis. A prominent tubercle on upper border of the pubis.
s. of scapula. An osseous plate projecting from the posterior surface of the scapula.
s. of sphenoid. Spinous process of the greater sphenoid wing.
s., pharyngeal. Ridge under the basilar process of the occipital bone.
s., posterior nasal. Spine formed by medial ends of the horizontal processes of the palatine bones.
s., sciatic. S., ischial.
s., suprameatal. A small spine at junction of superior and posterior walls of the external auditory meatus. SYN: s., Henle's.
s., typhoid. Acute arthritis due to infection causing spinal ankylosis during or following typhoid fever.

spinobulbar (spi-no-bul-bar) [ + Gr. bulbos, a bulb]. Concerning the spinal cord and medulla oblongata.

spinocellular (spi-no-sel-u-lar) [ + cellula, little cell]. Pert. to or like prickle cells.

(spi"no-ser-e-bel'ar) [" + cerebellum, little brain]. Concerning the spinal cord and cerebellum.

spinocortical (spi"no-kor'ti-kal) [" + cortex, rind]. Pert. to the spinal cord and cerebral cortex. SYN: corticospinal.

(spi"no-kos-ta'lis) [" + costa, rib]. The combination of the superior and inferior serratus muscles. splnoglenoid (spi'no-glen'oyd) [" + Gr. glene, socket, + eidos, form, shape]. Rel. to the spine of the scapula and the glenoid cavity.

spinoglenoid ligament. Ligament joining the spine of the scapula to the border of the glenoid cavity.

spinose (spi'nos) [L. spina, thorn]. Spinous. spinotectal (spi"no-tek'tal) [" + tectum, roof]. Pert. to the spinal cord and the tectum, the dorsal portion (corpora quadrigemina) of the midbrain.

Spinous (spi'nus) [L. spina, thorn]. Pert. to or resembling a spine. spinous point. Spot over a spinous process very sensitive to pressure. spinous process. Prominence at posterior part of each vertebra.

splint (splint) [MD. splinte, a wedge]. An appliance made of bone, wood, metal, or plaster of paris, used for the fixation, union, or protection of an injured part of the body. It may be movable or immovable.
s., Agnew's. Splint used in fractures of the patella and metacarpus. s., airplane. An appliance usually used on ambulatory patients in the treatment of fractures of the humerus. It takes its name from the elevated (abducted) position in which it holds the arm suspended away from the body. s., Ashhurst's. A bracketed splint of wire with a footpiece to cover the thigh and leg after excision of the knee joint.
s., Balkan. Splint used for continuous extension in fracture of the femur. s., banjo traction. Splint made out of a steel rod bent to resemble the shape of a banjo. Used for the treatment of contractures and fractures of the fingers.
s., Bavarian. An immovable dressing in which the plaster is applied between two layers of flannel. s., blow-up. Tubular material that fits around the injured extremity. It contains compartments that can be inflated. These immobilize the injured part when filled with air.
s., Bond's. Splint used for fracture of the lower end of the radius. s., Bowlby's. Splint used for fracture of the shaft of the humerus.
s., bracketed. Splint composed of two pieces of metal or wood united by brackets.
S., Cabot's. Splint composed of a metal structure placed posterior to the thigh and leg,
s., coaptation
. Small splint adjusted about a fractured part to prevent overriding of the fragments of bones. Usually covered by a longer splint for fixation of entire section.
s., Denis Browne. Splint used to treat talipes equinovarus (clubfoot) and consisting of a curved bar attached to the soles of a pair of high-topped shoes. Often used in late infancy and applied at bedtime. Generally employed following casting and manipulation which have reduced the deformity.
s., Dupuytren's. Splint used to prevent eversion in Pott's fracture, q.v.
S., dynamic. Splint that assists in movements initiated by the patient.
s., Fox's. Splint used for fractured clavicle.
s., functional. S., dynamic.
s., Gibson walking. Splint that is a modification of Thomas splint.
s., Gordon's.
A side splint used for the arm and hand in Colles' fracture.
s., inflatable. Inflatable device for immobilizing part or all of an extremity. The hollow tubular device is placed around the part and then inflated. ., s.,McIntire's. Splint shaped like a double inclined plane, used as a posterior splint for leg and thigh.
s., Sayre's. One of three varieties of splint: ankle, knee, and hip joint disease.
s., Stromeyer's. Splint with two hinged sections that can be set at any angle, used esp. for the knee.
s., Thomas. A long wire splint with a proximal ring. The ring fits over the lower extremity and is placed as fqr as it will go toward the hip. Used in emergency treatment of femoral fracture.
s., Thomas' knee. A rigid metal used to remove pressure of body weight from a weak knee joint by transferring weight to the ischium and perineum.
s., Volkmann's. Splint used for fracture of lower extremity, consisting of a footpiece and two lateral supports.

spondyl- (spon'dil) [Gr. spondylos, vertebra ] . Combining form for vertebra. spondylalgia (spon"dil-al'je-a) [" + algv pain]. Painful condition of a vertebra.

Spondylarthritls (spon"dil-ar-thri'tis) [" - arthron, joint, + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of a vertebra; arthritis of the spine.

spondylarthrocace (spon"dil-ar-throk'ase) [" + " + hake, badness]. Tuberculous condition of the vertebrae.

spondylexarthrosis (spon"dil-eks"arthro'sis) [" + exarthrosis, dislocation] Dislocation of a vertebra.

spondylitic (spon"di-lit'ik) ["` + itis, inflammation]. 1. A person with spondylitis. 2, Concerning spondylitis.