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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.16
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
to spondylitic spondylitis to
sacrad (sa'krad) [L. sacrum, sacred. + toward]. In the
direction of the sacrum.
sacral (sa'kral) [L. sacralis]. Rel. to the sacrum.
sacral bone. A triangular bone made up of five fused
vertebrae just above the coccyx - SYN: sacrum.
sacral canal. Continuation of the vertebral canal in the
sacral flexure. Rectal curve in front of the sacrum.
sacralgia (sa-kral'je-a) [L. sacrum, + Gr. algos,
pain]. Pain in the sacrum. SYN: hieralgia.
sacral index. Sacral breadth multiplied by 100 and
divided by sacral length.
sacralization (sa"kral-i-za'ahun). Fusion of the sacrum
and the 5th lumbar vertebra.
sacral nerves. Five pairs of spinal nerves the upper four
of which emerge through the posterior sacral foramina, the fifth pair
through the sacral hiatus (termination of sacral canal). All are mixed
nerves (motor and sensory).
sacral plexus. Plexus of sacral nerves from which sciatic
nerve originates. It is a part of the lumbosacral plexus.
sacral vertebra. Fused vertebrae forming the sacrum.
Sacrectomy (sa-krek'to-me) [L. sacrum, sacred, + Gr.
ektome, excision]. Excision of part of the sacrum.
sacro- (sa'kro) [L. sacrum, sacred]. Prefix indicating
relationship to the sacrum.
sacrococcygeal (sa"kro-kok-sij'e-al) [' Gr. kokkyx,
coccyx]. Concerning the sacrum and coccyx.
sacrococcygeus (sak"ro-kok-sij'e-us). I of two small
muscles (anterior and posterior) extending from the sacrum to cocyx.
sacrocoxalgia (sa"kro-koks-al'je-a) [" + coxa, hip, + Gr.
algos, pain]. Pain in the sacroiliac joint, usually due to inflammation.
sacrocoxitis (sa"kro-koks-i'tis) [" + " - Gr. itis,
inflammation]. Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint.
sacrodynia (sa"kro-din'e-a) [" + odyne, pain]. Pain in
the region of the sacrum.
sacroiliac (sa"kro-il'e-ak) [" + iliacus, hipbone]. Of,
or pert. to, the sacrum and illium.
sacroiliac joint. The articulation between the sacrum and
the innominate bone of the pelvis. Joint movement is limited because of
intterlocking of the articular surfaces.
sacroiliitis (sa"kro-il"e-i'tis) [" + " + Gr. itis,
inflammation]. Inflammation of the sacroiliac joint.
sacrolisthesis (sa"kro-lis-the'sis) [" + Gr. olisthesis,
a slipping]. A deformity in which the sacrum is in front of the last
sacrolumbar (sa"kro-lum'bar) [" + lumbus, loin]. Of, or
concerning, the sacrum and and lumbar area
sacrolumbar angle. Angle formed by articulation of the
last lumbar vertebra and the sacrum.
sacrosciatic (sa"kro-si-at'ik) [" + sciaticus, hipjoint].
Concerning the sacrum and ischium.
sacrospinal (sa"kro-spi'nal) [" + spina, thorn].
Concerning the sacrum and spine.
sacrospinalis [" + spina, thorn]. A large muscle lying on
either side of the vertebral column extending from the sacrum to the
head. Its two chief components are the iliocostalis and longissimus
sacrotomy (sa-krot'o-me) [" + Gr. tome, incision].
Surgical excision of the lower part of the sacrum.
sacrovertebral (sa"kro-ver'te-bral) [" + vertebra,
vertebra]. Concerning the sacrum and spinal column.
sacrovertebral angle. Angle formed by the base of the
sacrum and 5th lumbar vertebra.
sacrum (sa'krum) [L., sacred]. The triangular bone
situated dorsal and caudal from the the two illia between the 5th lumbar
vertebra and the coccyx. It is formed of five united vertebrae and is
wedged between the two innominate bones, its articulations forming the
sacroiliac joints. It forms the base of the vertebral column and, with
the coccyx, forms the posterior boundary of the true pelvis. The sacrum
in a male is narrower and more curved than in a female. SYN: vertebra
saddle back. Term applied to an exaggerated curve of the
lower back, lordosis,
sagittal (saji-tal) [L. sagittalis]. Arrowlike in an
sagittalis (saj"i-ta'lis) [L.]. Sagittal,
sagittal plane. A vertical plane through the
longitudinal axis of the trunk dividing the body into two portions. If
it is through the anterior-posterior midaxis and divides the body into
right and left halves, it is called a median or midsagittal plane.
sagittal sinus. The superior longitudinal sinus.
sagittal sulcus. Groove on inner surface of parietal
bones, forming a channel for the superior sagittal sinus.
sagittal suture. Suture between the two parietal bones.
sarcoma (sar-ko'ma) [" + oma, tumor]. (pl. sarcomata)
Cancer arising from connective tissue such as muscle or bone. May affect
the bones, bladder, kidneys, liver, lungs, parotids, and spleen.
s:, alveolar soft part. Malignant neoplasm composed of a
reticular stroma of connective tissue surrounding clumps of large round
s., Chondro-. Sarcoma composed of masses of cartilage.
s., Ewing"s. A diffuse endothelioma or endothelial
myeloma forming a fusiform swelling on a long bone.
s., fibro-. Malignant tumor with fibrous tissue, many
spindle cells, and dilated vessels.
s., myeloid Sarcoma from cancellous bone tissue with large cells with many nuclei.
A special type called an epulis is seen in the jaw.
s., lipo-. A rare tumor of bone containing cells of
various types with small vacuoles of fat.
s., osteogenic. Sarcoma composed of osseous tissue
containing variously shaped cells.
s., rhabdomyo-. An embryonal tumor of striated muscle
containing multinucleated cells with a striated cytoplasm.
s., spindle cell. Sarcoma consisting of small and large
sarcomatoid (sar-ko'ma-toyd) [Gr. sarx, flesh, + oma,
tumor, + eidos, form, shape]. Resembling a sarcoma. sarcomatosis
(sar"ko-ma-to'sis) [" + " + osis, condition]. Condition marked by
presence and spread of a sarcoma; sarcomatous degeneration.
sarcomatous (sar-ko'ma-tus). Of the nature of, or like, a
sarcomere (sar-ko-mer) [" + meros, a part]. The portion
of a striated muscle fibril lying between two adjacent dark lines called
sarcostosis (sar"kos-to'sis) [" + osteon, bone, + osis,
condition]. Ossification of fleshy or muscular tissue.
sarcostyle (sar'ko-stil) [" + stylos, a column]. Any one
of the fine longitudinal fibrillae of a striated muscle fiber.
sarcotic (sar-kot'ik) [Gr. sarx, flesh]. 1. Producing or
pert. to flesh formation. 2. Agent producing growth of flesh.
sarcous (sar'kus) [Gr. sarko, flesh]. Concerning flesh or
sciatica (si-ati-ka) [L.] severe pain
in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, felt at the back of the thigh running down the inside of the leg.
scoliokyphosis (sko"le-o-ki-fo'sis) [Gr. skolios, twisted, +
kyphosis, humpback]. Combined scoliosis and kyphosis.
[" + metron, measure]. Device for measuring curves, esp. lateral ones
of the spine.
(sko"le-o-ra-kit'ik) [" + rhachis, spine]. Pert. to, or afflicted with,
spinal curvature from rickets.
(sko"le-o-se-om'e-tre) [" + metron, measure]. Measurement of
degree of spinal curvature. SYN: scoliosometry.
scoliosis [Gr. skoliosis, crookedness]. Lateral curvature of the
spine. Usually consists of two curves, the original abnormal curve and
a compensatory curve in the opposite direction.
s., cicatricial. Scoliosis
due to cicatricial contraction resulting from necrosis.
s., congenital. Scoliosis present at birth, usually the
result of defective embryonic development of the spine.
s., coxitic. Scoliosis in the lumbar spine due to
tilting of the pelvis in hip disease.
s., empyematic.Scoliosis following empyema and
retraction of one side of the chest.
s., habit. Scoliosis due to habitually assumed
improper posture or position.
s., inflammatory. Scoliosis due to disease of the
s., ischiatic. Scoliosis due to hip disease.
s., myopathic. Scoliosis due to weakening of spinal
muscles. SYN: s., osteopathic.
s., ocular. Scoliosis from tilting of the head because
of visual defects of extraocular muscle imbalance.
s., osteopathic. S., myopathic.
S., paralytic. Scoliosis due to paralysis of muscles.
s., rachitic. Scoliosis due to rickets.
s., rheumatic. Scoliosis due to rheumatism of dorsal
s., sciatic. Scoliosis due to sciatica
s., static. Scoliosis due to difference in length of
scoliosometry (sko"le-o-som'et-re) [+ metron,
measure]. Determination of degree of spinal curvature. SYN:
scoliotic (sko-le-ot'ik). Suffering from or relating
scoliotone (sko'le-o-ton) [Gr
twisted,+ tonos, tension]. An apparatus for
correcting the curve in scoliosis by stretching the spine.
shin (shin) [AS. scinu, shin]. Anterior edge of tibia,
portion of leg between the ankle and knee. SYN: shank.
s., saber. Condition seen in congenital
syphilis in which anterior edge of tibia is extremely sharp.
shingles (shing'lz) [L. cingulus, a girdle].
Eruption of acute, inflammatory, herpetic vesicles on the trunk of the
body along a peripheral nerve; occasionally elsewhere. SYN: herpes
[AS. sculdor]. The junction of the clavicle and scapula where the arm
meets the trunk. SEE: scapula.
s., dislocation of. Displacement of shoulder
joint. Because dislocation of the shoulder is frequently accompanied by
a fracture, surgeons advise making an x-ray examination of affected
bones. Attempting to reduce dislocations without knowledge of the
presence of fractures is very dangerous and sometimes results in serious
paralysis of the entire upper extremity or grave damage to the large
blood vessels in the armpit.
shoulder blade. The scapula.
shoulder girdle. The two scapulae and two
clavicles attaching the bones of the upper extremities to the axial
skeleton, i.e., the vertebrae of the backbone.
shoulder joint. Joint formed by humerus and
glenoid cavity of the scapula.
[Gr. skelis, leg, + algos, pain]. Pain in the leg.
skeletal(skel'e-tal) [Gr. skeleton, a
dried-up body]. Pert. to the skeleton.
skeletal muscle Muscle fibers that with few
exceptions are attached to parts of the skeleton and involved primarily
in movements of the parts of the body. SYN: striated muscle; voluntary
skeletal survey. Procedure in which entire
skeleton is radiographed to determine the presence of pathology.
skeletal traction. Pulling force applied
directly to the bone through surgically applied pins and tongs.
skeletogenous (skel-e-toj'e-nus) [" gennan,
to produce]. Forming skeletal structures or tissues.
skeleton (skel'et-on) [Gr., a dried-up
body]. The bony framework of the body consisting of 206 bones: 80 axial
or trunk and 126 of the limbs (appendicular). This number does not
include teeth or sesamoid bones other than the patella.
skull (skul) [ME. skulle, bowl]. The bony
framework of the head, composed of eight cranial bones, the 14 bones of
the face, and the teeth. SYN: calvaria; cranium.
s., fracture of. Classified according to
whether the fracture is in the vault or the base, but from the point of
view of treatment, a more useful classification is as follows:
Simple uncomplicated fractures: Not common.
Compound fractures: If in vault of skull, the bone is depressed and
driven inward with possible damage to brain. Treatment is operative.
sole (sol) [AS. sole]. 1. Underpart of the
foot SYN: planta. 2. The portion of a motor endplate at termination of a
motor nerve fiber that is directly adjacent to the contractile substance
of a muscle fiber. A large number of muscle nuclei are usually
sole reflex. Plantar flexion of the foot muscles when tickling the
sole. SYN: plantar reflex.
soleus (so'le-us) [L. solea, sole of foot].
A flat, broad muscle of the calf of the leg.
soma (so'ma) [Gr. soma, body]. 1. The body as
distinct from the mind. 2. All of the body cells except the germ cells.
3. The body exclusive of the extremities.
somasthenia (som"as-the'ne-a) [ +
astheneia, weakness]. A condition of chronic bodily weakness. SYN:
somatesthesia (so'mat-es-the'ze-a) [" +
aisthesis, sensation]. The consciousness of the body; bodily sensation.
somatic (so-mat'ik) [Gr. soma, body]. 1.
Pert. to nonreproductive cells or tissues. 2. Pert. to the body. 3.
Pert. to structures of the body wall, e.g., skeletal muscles (somatic
musculature) in contrast to structures associated with the viscera,
e.g., visceral muscles (splanchnic musculature).
somatotopic(so"ma-to-top'ik) [" + topos,
place]. Concerning the correspondence between a particular part of the
body and a particular area of the brain.
somatotrophin (so"ma-to-tro'fin) [" +
trophe, nourishment]. Growth hormone, somatotropin.<
somatotropic (so"ma-to-trop'ik) [" + trope,
a turn]. Influencing the body or body cells.
somatotropin(so"mat-o-tro'pin) [" + tropos,
a turning]. The anterior pituitary lobe's growth-stimulating principle.
In the human, this is called human growth hormone (HGH).
(som-es-the'se-a) [" + aisthesis, sensation]. Awareness of bodily
sensations. SYN: somatesthesia.
somesthetic (so-mes-thet'ik). Pert. to
sensations and sensory structures of the body.
somesthetic path. General sensory conduction
path leading to the cortex.
somite(so'mit) [Gr. soma, body]. Embryonic
blocklike segment formed on either side of the neural tube and its
underlying notochord. Each somite gives rise to a muscle mass supplied
by a spinal nerve and each pair gives rise to a vertebra.
spasm (spazm) [Gr. spasmos, convulsion]. An
involuntary sudden movement or convulsive muscular contraction. Spasms
may be clonic (characterized by alternate contraction and relaxation) or
tonic (sustained). They may involve either visceral (smooth) muscle or
skeletal (striated) muscle. When contractions are strong and painful,
they are called cramps. The effect depends upon the part affected.
Asthma is assumed to be due to spasm of muscular coats of smaller
bronchi; renal colic to spasm of muscular coat of the ureter.
TREAT: General measures to reduce tension, induce muscle relaxation,
and improve circulation. Specific measures include analgesics for relief
of pain and physiotherapy (heat, diathermy, electrical therapy). Special
orthopedic supports or braces are sometimes effective. For vascular
spasm, chemical sympathectomy may give relief.
s., saltatory. Term employed to designate a
condition allied to hysteria in which a violent spasm seizes the muscles
of the leg as soon as the feet touch the ground and, as a result,
patient is thrown violently in the air.
s., tetanic. Spasm in which contractions
continue for a time without interruption.
s., tonic. Continued involuntary contractions.
s., torsion.Spasm characterized by a
turning of a part, esp. the turning of the body at the pelvis.