A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.14
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
quadriceps femoris. A large muscle on the anterior surface of the thigh composed of four muscles; rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius. These muscles are inserted by a common tendon on the tuberosity of the tibia. Quadriceps femoris is an extensor of the leg.
quadricepsplasty (kwod"ri-seps'plas-te) [" + " + Gr. plassein, to form]. Plastic surgery for adhesions and scars around the quadriceps femoris muscle in order to restore function.
quadriplegia (kwod"ri-ple'je-a) [" + Gr. plege, stroke]. Paralysis of all four extremities and usually the trunk.
ETIOL: Injury to the spinal cord, usually at the level of the 5th or 6th cervical vertebra. The injury may be higher, but death occurs when damage is above the level of the 3rd cervical vertebra.
EMERGENCY CARE: When a fracture of a cervical vertebra is suspected, the injured patient's head and neck should be held steady with applied traction during transportation.
Quervain's disease (kar'vanz). [Fritz de Quervain, Swiss surgeon, 1868-1940] Chronic tenosynovitis of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pallicis brevis muscles.
rachi to reflex
rehabilitation to rotator
rachi-, rachio- [Gr. rhachis, spine]. Combining forms indicating spine.
rachial (ra'ke-al) [Gr. rhachis spine]. Concerning the spine. SYN: rachidial.
rachialbuminimeter (ra"ke-al-bu"min-im'et-er) [" + L. albumen, white of egg, + Gr. metron, measure]. Device for determining the amount of albumin in the cerebrospinal fluid.
rachialbuminimetry (ra"ke-al-bu"minim'et-re). Determination of the amount of albumin in the cerebrospinal fluid.
rachialgia (ra-ke-al'je-a) [" + algos, pain]. Pain in the spine. SYN: rachiodynia.
rachianalgesia (ra"ke-an-al-je'ze-a) [" + analgesia, lack of pain]. Spinal anesthesia. SYN: rachianesthesia.
rachianesthesia (ra"ke-an-es-the'ze-a) [" + an-, negative, + aisthesis, sensation]. Spinal anesthesia.
rachicele (ra'ki-sel) [" + kele, tumor, swelling]. Protrusion of contents of spinal canal in spina bifida.
rachicentesis (ra"ki-sen-te'sis) [" + kentesis, puncture]. Puncture into the spinal canal.
rachidial (ra-kid'e-al). Concerning the spine.
rachidian (ra-kid'e-an). Rel. to the spinal column.
rachigraph (ra'ki-graf) [" + graphein, to write]. Device for outlining the curves of the spine.
rachilysis (ra-kili-sis [" + lysis, dissolution]. Mechanical treatment of lateral curvature of the spine through traction and pressure.
rachiocampsis (ra-ke-o-kamp'sis) [" + kampsis, a bending]. Curvature of spine.
rachiocentesis (ra"ke-o-sen-te'sis) [" + kentesis, puncture]. Lumbar puncture.
rachiochysis (ra-ke-ok'isis) [" + chysis, a pouring]. Accumulation of fluid within the spinal canal.
rachiodynia (ra-ke-o-din'e-a) [" + odyne, pain]. Painful condition of the spinal column. SYN: rachialgia.
rachiometer (ra-ke-om'o-ter) [" + metron, measure]. Instrument for measuring a curvature of the spine.
rachiomyelitis (ra-ke-o-mi-e-li-tis) [ + myelos, marrow, + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the spinal cord.
rachiopagus (ra"ke-op'a-gus) [" + pagos, thing fixed]. A conjoined twin deformity in which the two are joined at the vertebral column.
rachiopathy (ra"ke-op'a-the) [" + pathos, disease]. Disease of the spine.
rachioplegia (ra-ke-o-ple'je-a) [" + plege, a stroke]. Paralysis due to a lesion in the spinal cord.
rachioscoliosis (ra"ke-o-sko"le-o'sis) [" + skoliosis, curvature]. Lateral curvature of the spine.
rachiotome (ra-ke-o-tom") [" + tome, incision]. Instrument for dividing the vertebrae.
rachiotomy (ra"ke-ot'o-me). Surgical cutting of the vertebral column.
rachis (ra'kis) [Gr. rhachis]. (pl. rachises) The spinal column.
rachischisis (ra-kis'ki-sis) [" + schisis, a splitting]. Congenital spinal column fissure. SYN: spina bifida.
r., posterior. Spina bifida.
rachitic (ra-kit'ik). Pert. to, or affected with, rickets.
rachitis (ra-ki'tis) [" + itis, inflammatory]. 1. Inflammation of the spine. 2. Rickets.
r. fetalis annularis. Congenital enlargement of epiphyses of long bones.
r. fetalis micromelica. Congenital shortness of the bones.
rachitism (rak'i-tism). Tendency to rickets.
rachitogenic (ra-kit"o-jen'ik) [" + genesis, generation, birth]. Causing or inducing development of rickets.
rachitome (rak'i-tom") [" + tome, incision]. Instrument employed for opening spinal canal.
radius [L., ray]. (pl. radii) 1. A line extending from a circle's center point to its circumference. 2. [NA] The outer and shorter bone of the arm, which revolves partially about the ulna. Its head articulates with the capitulum of the humerus. Its lower portion articulates by the ulnar notch with the ulna, and by another articulation with the navicular (scaphoid) and lunate bones of the wrist.
r., fracture A fracture and dislocation of the lower end of the radius, generally caused by falling on the outstretched hand.
Raimiste's phenomenon. An associated reaction in hemiplegia whereby resistance to hip abduction or adduction in the non-involved extremity evokes the same motion in the involved extremity.
ramus (ra'mus) [L., branch]. (pl. rami) (NA] A branch; one of the divisions of a forked structure.
r., anterior. A primary division of a spinal nerve that supplies the lateral and ventral portions of body wall, the limbs, and perineum.
r., bronchial. Collateral branches of each primary bronchus.
r. communicans. [NA] One of the primary branches of a spinal nerve that connects with a sympathetic ganglion. Each consists of a white portion (white ramus communicans) of myelinated preganglionic sympathetic fibers and a gray portion (gray ramus communicans) composed of unmyelinated postganglionic fibers.
range of motion. ABBR: ROM. The range of movement of a joint.
range-of-motion exercise. SEE: exercise, range-of-motion.
rebound [ME. rebounden, to leap back]. Response even in reflexes in which sudden withdrawal of stimulus is followed by fresh activity, such as a strong contraction following a moderate one, marked relaxation following moderate relaxation, or contraction replacing inhibition.
rebound phenomenon. When a limb or a part is acting against a resistance and the resistance is suddenly removed, the limb will move forcibly in the direction toward which effort was being directed. This is indicative of a cerebellar lesion.
receptor (re-sep'tor) [L., a receiver]. Various sensory nerve endings.
r., cholinergic. Sites in nerve synapses or effector cells that respond to the effects of acetylcholine.
rt., contact. Receptor that gives rise to a sensation such as touch, temperature. pain that can be localized in or on the surface of the body.
rt, Cutaneous. Receptor located in the skin.
r,'s, proprioceptive, Muscle and tendon spindles, the receptors of the muscle or kinesthetic, or position, sense. (see proprioception)
r. "s, rotary. The hair cells in the cristae of the ampulla of semicircular ducts of the ear, which are stimulated by angular acceleration or rotation,
r., sensory. A sensory nerve-ending, a cell or group of cells, or a sense organ that, when stimulated, gives rise to an afferent or sensory impulse.
CLASSIF: Exteroreceptors: those located on or near the surface that respond to stimuli of the outside world. Include eye and ear (receptors for remote stimuli) and touch, temperature, and pain receptors (contact receptors). Interoceptors: those in mucous linings of alimentary and digestive tracts that respond to internal stimuli; also called visceroceptors. Proprioceptors: those responding to stimuli arising within body tissues.
Receptors also are classified on the basis of nature of stimuli to which they respond: chemoreceptors, those that respond to chemical substances (taste buds, olfactory cells, receptors in aortic and carotid bodies); pressoreceptors, those that respond to pressure (receptors in aortic arch and carotid sinus); photoreceptors, those that respond to light (rods and cones); tangoreceptors, those that respond to touch (Meissner's corpuscle).
r.'s, stretch. Neuromuscular and neurotendinar spindles and organs of Golgi, which are stimulated by stretch. SEE: proprioceptor. *
reflex (re'fleks) [L. reflexus, bend back]. An involuntary response to a stimulus; a reflex action. Reflexes are specific and predictable and are usually purposeful and adaptive. They depend upon an intact neural pathway between point of stimulation and responding organ (muscle or gland). This pathway is called reflex arc. In a simple reflex this includes a sensory receptor, afferent or sensory neuron, reflex center in brain or spinal cord, one or more efferent neurons, and an effector organ (muscle or gland). Most reflexes, however, are more complicated and include internuncial or associative neurons intercalated between afferent and efferent neurons.
r., autonomic, true. A visceral response in which afferent impulses do not pass through central nervous system, but instead enter prevertebral ganglia where connections are made with efferent neurons.
r., axon. A reflex that does not involve a complete reflex arc, hence is not a true reflex. The afferent and efferent limbs of the reflex are branches of a single nerve fiber, the axon (axonlike dendrite) of a sensory neuron. An example is vasodilation resulting from stimulation of skin.
r., Babinski"s. SEE: Babinski's reflex.
r., biceps. Flexion of forearm upon percussion of tendon of biceps brachii.
r., chain. Reflex initiated by several separate serial reflexes, each of which was activated by the preceding one.
r., clasp-knife. Quick inhibition of the stretch reflex when extensor muscles are forcibly stretched by flexing the limb. SYN: reaction, lengthening.
r., conditioned. Reflex acquired as a result of training in which the cerebral cortex is an essential part of the neural mechanism. Any reflex not inborn or inherited.
r., crossed Reflex in which stimulation of one side of the body results in response on the opposite side. SYN: r., consensual; r., indirect.
r., crossed extension. Extension of the opposite side lower extremity when a painful stimulus is applied to the skin.
r., deep. Reflex caused by stimulation of parts beneath skin, like tendons or bones, as the jaw, elbow, wrist, triceps, knee, and ankle jerk reflexes.
r., delayed. Reflex not taking place until some seconds after application of stimulus
r., elementary. A typical reflex common to all vertebrates. Includes postural, flexion, stretch, and extensor thrust reflexes.
r., extensor thrust. A quick and brief extension of a limb upon application of pressure to plantar surface.
r., flexor withdrawal. Flexion of the lower extremity when the foot receives a painful stimulus.
r., intersegmental. Reflex in which several segments of spinal cord are involved.
r., intrasegmental. Reflex that involves only a single segment of the spinal cord.
r., kinetic. R., labyrinthine.
r., kneejerk.Extension of the leg resulting from percussion of patellar tendon. This is an example of a myotatic or stretch reflex of importance in the maintenance of posture. The reflex is diminished or abolished in lesions of the nerve supplying the muscle and tendon, lesions of posterior roots involving a sensory pathway as in tabes dorsalis, lesions of anterior root involving motor pathways, or lesions of lower motor neurons in anterior horns of gray matter of spinal cord, as in poliomyelitis. If, however, the upper motor neuron is destroyed, muscle tone and the motor response are greatly increased. So-called pathologic reflex under these conditions may appear. Reflexes are also modified by higher centers, e.g., emotional tension increases the knee jerk (and muscle tension generally). SEE: Babinski's reflex; Jendrassik's maneuver.
r., labyrinthine. Reflex, esp. a postural reflex, resulting from stimulation of receptors in semicircular ducts, utricle, and saccule of inner ear. SYN: r., kinetic.
r., local, Reflex that does not involve the central nervous system.
r., long. Reflex involving many segments of the spinal cord.
r., plantar. SEE: Babinski's reflex; plantar reflex.
r., postural. Any reflex that is concerned with maintenance of posture.
r. "s, proprioceptive. Reflexes initiated by movement of the body to maintain position of the moved part. Any reflex initiated by stimulation of a proprioceptor.
r., short. Reflex involving one or a few segments of spinal cord.
r., somatic. Reflex induced by stimulation of somatic sensory nerve endings.
r.,spinal, Reflex whose center is in the spinal cord.
r., static. Reflex concerned with establishment and maintenance of posture when body is at rest.
r. "s, statokinetic. Reflexes occurring when body is moving, e.g., walking or running.
r,-s Stretch. Contraction of a muscle as a result of stretching the same muscle. SYN: r., myotatic.
r., superficial. Cutaneous reflex caused by irritation of the skin or areas depending upon the spinal cord as a motor center, such as the scapular, epigastric, abdominal, cremasteric, gluteal, and plantar reflexes, or upon centers in the medulla, such as conjunctival, pupillary, and palatal reflexes.
r., tendon. Deep reflex obtained by sharply tapping skin over tendon of a muscle. Exaggerated in disease of upper neuron, diminished in disease of lower neuron.