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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.13

medical and general terms relating to posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems

ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA = Nomina Anatomica


pachymeningitis to Parkinson    passive to point   -  -  polio to pyramid

polio. poliomyelitis, acute anterior.

polio- [Gr. polios, gray]. Combining form indicating relationship to the gray matter of the nervous system.

polioclastic (pol"e-o-klas'tik) [" + klastos, breaking]. Destructive to gray matter of the nervous system.

polioencephalitis (pol"e-o-en-sef'a-li'tis) [" + enkephalos, brain, + itis, inflammation]. Condition characterized by inflammatory lesions of the gray matter of the brain.

p., anterior superior. A disease involving necrotic changes in gray matter about the 3rd ventricle, anterior portion of the 4th ventricle, and aqueduct of Sylvius. Characterized by ocular abnormalities, mental disturbances, and ataxia. Of nutritional origin. probably thiamine (vitamin B,) deficiency. SYN: Wernicke's syndrome.
p. hemorrhagica. Polioencephalitis accompanied by hemorrhagic lesions.
p., posterior. Polioencephalitis involving gray matter about the 4th ventricle.

polioencephalomeningomyelitis (pol"e-oen-sefal-o-men-in"go-mi-el-i'tis) [" + " + meninx, membrane, + myelos, marrow, + itis inflammation]. Inflammation of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord and their meninges.

polioencephalomyelitis (pol"e-o-en-sef'al-o-myal-it is). Inflamed condition of the gray matter of the brain and spinal cord.

polioencephalopathy (pol"e-o-en-sef"alop'a-the) [Gr. polios, gray, + enkephalos, brain, + pathos, disease, suffering]. Diseased condition of the gray matter of the brain.

poliomyelencephalitis (pol-e-o-mi-el-en-sef-al-i-tis) [ + myelos, marrow, + enkephalos, brain, + itis, inflammation]. Poliomyelitis with polioencephalitis.

poliomyelitis (pole-o-mi-el-itis) [ + + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord. An acute viral disease characterized by fever, sore throat, headache, vomiting, and often stiffness of the neck and back. There may also be subsequent atrophy of groups of muscles ending in contraction and permanent deformity.
p., abortive. Poliomyelitis in which illness is mild with no involvement of central nervous system.
p., acute anterior. An acute infectious inflammation of the anterior horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord. This is an acute, systemic, infectious disease in which paralysis may or may not occur. In the majority of patients, the disease is mild, being limited to respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, such constituting the minor illness of the abortive type, which lasts only a few days. In the major illness, paralysis or weakness of muscles occurs with loss of superficial and deep reflexes.
p., bulbar. Poliomyelitis in which gray matter of the medulla oblongata is involved, resulting in paralysis and usually respiratory failure. SEE: poliomyelitis, acute anterior.
p., chronic anterior. Progressive wasting of the muscles. Myelopathic progressive muscular atrophy.
p., nonparalytic. Pain and stiffness in the muscles of the axial skeleton, esp. of the neck and back; mild fever; increased proteins and leukocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Diagnosis depends on the isolation of the virus and serological reactions.
p., paralytic. Poliomyelitis with a variable combination of signs of damage of the central nervous system. These include weakness, incoordination, muscle tenderness and spasms, flaccid paralysis, and disturbance of consciousness.

poliomyelopathy (pol"e-o-mi"e1-op'a-the) [Gr. polios, gray, + myelos, marrow, + pathos, disease, suffering]. Any diseased condition of the gray matter of the spinal cord.

poliovirus vaccine, live oral. USP. ABBR: OPV. A standard preparation of one or a combination of the three types of live, attenuated polioviruses. It is suitable for immunizing children and adults against all three types of poliovirus; but the inactivated poliovirus vaccine is preferred for adults because of the slightly high risk of vaccine-associated paralysis. The schedule for infants is first dose at 6 to 12 weeks, the second about 2 months later, a third 8 to 12 months after the second. No additional "boosters" are recommended. For children and adolescents not previously immunized prior to age 18, two doses are given 8 weeks apart and a third dose 6 to 12 months later. Trade name is Orimune.

polychondritis (pol"e-kon-dri'tis) [" + chondros, cartilage, + itis, inflammation]. Inflammation of several cartilages of the body.
p., chronic atrophic relapsing. A degenerative disease of cartilage associated with polyarthritis, involvement of the cartilage of the nose, ears, joints, bronchi, and trachea. The cause is unknown and there is no specific therapy. Because of the collapse of the bronchial walls, repeated infections of the lungs will occur and death may result from these infections.

polydystrophic (pol"e-dis-tro'fik). Concerning or having polydystrophy.

polydystrophy (pol"e-dis'tro-fe) [" + " + trophe, nourishment). Condition of having multiple congenital anomalies of the connective tissues.

polymyositis (pol"e-ms"o-si'tis) [" + " + itis, inflammation]. A disease of the connective tissue characterized by edema, inflammation and degeneration of the muscles, and dermatitis. Etiology is unknown. SYN: dermatomyositis.

polyneuritis (pol"e-nu-ri'tis) [" + itis, inflammation]. A neuritis involving two or more nerves, usually a large number., SYN: neuritis, multiple.
p., acute idiopathic. Landry's paralysis.
p., Jamaica ginger. Polyneuritis, esp. of the nerves of the extremities following ingestion of Jamaica ginger beverage. SYN: ginger paralysis.
p., metabolic. Polyneuritis resulting from metabolic disorders such as nutritional deficiency, esp. the lack of thiamine;.gastrointestinal disorders; or pathological conditions such as diabetes, pernicious anemia, and toxemias of pregnancy.
p., toxic. Polyneuritis resulting from poisons such as heavy metals, alcohol, carbon monoxide, or various organic compounds.

polyneuromyositis (pol"e-nu"ro-mi"o-si'tis) [" + " + mys, muscle, + itis, inflammation]. Disease in which polyneuritis and polymyositis occur together.

Possum (pos'um). [patient operated selector mechanism]. Device that permits a disabled individual to control and operate various machines such as switches, telephones, and typewriters by breathing into the master control of the apparatus.

postpoliomyelitis muscular atrophy. , ABBR: PPMA. The development of new neuromuscular symptoms, including muscle weakness, many years after recovery from acute paralytic poliomyelitis. This may occur in muscles that were previously affected by polio and recovered or in muscles that were clinically unaffected by the acute disease. There is no treatment for this slowly progressing atrophy, but the unaffected muscles remain strong. The disease is not thought to be related to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

postsacral (post-sa'kral) [" + sacrum, sacred]. Below the sacrum.

*posture (pos'tur) [L. postura]. Attitude or position of the body. *
*see also more complete research on sitting posture
p., coiled Body on one side with legs drawn up to meet the trunk. Noted in cerebral diseases and in hepatic, intestinal, and renal colic.
p., dorsal rigid. Patient on back with both legs drawn up. Seen in peritonitis, meningitis, ascites, tympanites. In appendicitis the right leg is drawn up; this also occurs in pelvic inflammation or peritonitis of right side, renal calculus in right ureter, and in psoas abscess.
p., orthopnea. Patient sitting upright, hands or elbows resting upon some support. Seen in spasmodic asthma, emphysema, dyspnea, ascites, effusions into the pleural and pericardial cavities, and in late stages of diseases of the heart.
p., orthotonos. Neck and trunk extended rigidly in straight line; seen in tetanus, strychnine poisoning, rabies, or meningitis.
p., prone. Posture assumed after abdominal colic or because of tuberculosis of the spine, eroded vertebrae, abdominal pain, or gastric ulcer.
p., semi-reclining. Posture used for patients with diseases of heart and interference with respiration in asthma and pleural effusions.

Pott's fracture. Fracture of the lower end of the fibula and medial malleolus of the tibia with dislocation of foot outward and backward. After reduction, foot and leg are put in a cast in which a walking iron is incorporated. The patient is able to walk, and cast is removed in about six weeks.

Poupart's ligament (pu-parz'). [Franqoia Poupart, Fr. anatomist, 1616-1708] The ligament forming the lower border of aponeurosis of external

precordia (pre-kor'de-a) [L. praecordia]. The precordium.

precordial (pre-kor'de-al). Pert. to the precordium or epigastrium.

precordialgia (pre"kor-de-al'je-a) [L. praecordia, precordia, + Gr. algos, pain]. Pain in the chest or precordial area.

precordium (pre-kor'de-um). The area on the anterior surface of the body overlying the heart and lower part of the thorax.

precostal (pre-kos'tal) [" + Gr. costa, rib]. In front of the ribs.

Preiser's disease (pri'zerz). [Georg K.F. Preiser, Ger. orthopedic surgeon, 1879-1913] Osteoporosis caused by trauma and affecting the scaphoid bone of the wrist.

pressure (presh'ur) [L. pressura]. 1. A compression. 2. Stress or force exerted on a body, as by tension, weight, or pulling.
p., cerebrospinal. Pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid. This varies with body position.

prevertebral (pre-ver'te-bral) [L. prae, before, in front of, + vertebra, vertebra]. In front of a vertebra.

prevertebral ganglia. Ganglia of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system, located near origins of the celiac and mesenteric arteries. These include the celiac and mesenteric ganglia. SYN: collateral ganglia.

process (pros'es) [L.processus, going before), 1. A method of action. 2. State of progress of a disease. 3. A projection or outgrowth of bone or tissue. SYN: processus [NA]. 4. Series of steps or events that lead to achievement of specific results.
p., pterygoid. Process of sphenoid bone extending downward from junction of the body and great wing. Consists of the lateral and medial pterygoid plates.
p., spinous, of vertebrae. The posterior-most part of a vertebra. This spine projects back and serves as a point of attachment for muscles of the back.
p., styloid. Styloid process.
p., transverse. Process extending laterally and dorsally from the arch of a vertebra.

prochordal (pro-kor'dal) [" + chorde, cord]. In front of the notochord.

prognose (prog-nos'). To predict the course of disease. prognosis (prog-no'sis) [Gr., foreknowledge]. Prediction of course and end of disease, and the estimate of chance for recovery.

prognostic. Rel. to prediction of outcome of a disease. progressive resistive exercise. ABBR: PRE. A form of active resistive exercise based on a principle of gradual increases in the amount of resistance in order to achieve maximum strength.

pronate (pro'nat). To place in a prone position.

pronation (pro-na'shun) [L. pronus, prone]. 1. The act of lying prone or face downward. 2. The act of turning the hand so that the palm faces downward or backward. SEE: supination.

pronator. A muscle that pronates.

pronator syndrome. A neurological disorder caused by entrapment of the median nerve at the elbow. Symptoms and signs include aching pain in the wrist with a subjective feeling of poor coordination; paresthesias extending into the hand; paresis of the thumb muscles; pain on pronation of the forearm and flexion of the wrist against resistance; and tenderness in the proximal thenar muscles. A positive Tinel's sign over the pronator teres muscles may be present. The disease usually affects the dominant arm of males. Corticosteroid injection into the site is usually effective.

proprioception* (pro"pre-o-shep'shun) [L.proprius, one's own, + capio, to take]. The awareness of posture, movement, and changes in equilibrium and the knowledge of position, weight, and resistance of objects in relation to the body.*see also my comments

proprioceptive (pro"pre-o-sep'tiv). Pert. to proprioception.

proprioceptive impulses. Afferent impulses arising in a proprioceptor.

proprioceptive sense. The correlation of unconscious sensations from the skin and joints that allows conscious appreciation of the position of the body.

proprioceptor (pro"pre-o-sep'tor) [" + ceptor, a receiver]. A receptor that responds to stimuli originating within the body itself, esp. those responding to pressure, position, or stretch. Ex.: muscle spindles, pacinian corpuscles, and labyrinthine receptors. Propriospinal (pro"pre-o-spinal) [" + spina, thorn]. Concerned exclusively with the spinal cord.

prosthesis (pros'the-sis) [Gr. prosthesis, an addition]. (pl. prostheses) 1. Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity. 2. An artificial organ or part. Advances in bioengineering have enabled scientists to develop artificial extremities including arms, hands, and portions of legs. 3. Device to augment performance of a natural function, such as a hearing aid.

pseudoankylosis (soo"do-ang"ki-lo'sis) [" + ankyle, stiff joint, + osis, condition]. A false joint.

pseudoparalysis (soo"do-pa-ral'i-sis) [" + para, at the side, + lyein, to loosen]. Loss of muscular power not due to lesion of the nervous system.

pseudoparaplegia (soo"do-par-a-ple'je-a) [" + " + plege, a stroke]. Seeming paralysis of the lower extremities without impairment of the reflexes.

pulsing electromagnetic field. ABBR: PEMF. The production of a pulsing electromagnetic field applied to a fractured bone in order to induce healing. The electric field is applied externally to the affected leg and does not involve invasion of the tissue. This treatment is esp. useful in treating fractures that have previously failed to heal. Direct current stimulation has also been used in treating these conditions.

purposeful movement. Motor activity requiring the planned and consciously directed involvement of the patient. It is hypothesized that evoking cortical involvement in movement patterns during sensorimotor rehabilitation will enhance the development of coordination and voluntary control.

pyramid (pir'a-mid) [Gr. pyramis, apyramid]. 1. A solid on the base with three or more triangular sides that meet at an apex. 2. Any part of the body resembling a pyramid. 3. A compact bundle of nerve fibers in the medulla oblongata. 4. Petrous portion.of temporal bone p. of medulla. One of a pair of elongated tapering prominences on the anterior surface of the medulla oblongata, composed of descending corticospinal fibers.

pyramidalis (pi-rami-dal'is) [L.]. the muscle that arises from the crest of the pubis and is inserted into the linea alba upward about halfway to the navel.

pyramidal tract. One of three descending tracts (lateral, ventral, ventrolateral) of the spinal cord. Consists of fibers arising from giant pyramidal cells of Betz present in the motor area of the cerebral cortex.