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the kneelsit GLOSSARY Pg.11
medical and general terms relating to
posture, sitting, musculoskeletal and back problems
ABBREVIATIONS:- Gr.= Greek; L.= Latin; Fr.= French; Ger = German; NA =
pachymeningitis to Parkinson - passive to point - polio to pyramid
pachymeningitis (pak-e-men"in-ji'tis) [" + meninx, membrane, + itis, inflammation]. Inflamed condition of the dura mater. Inflammation of either the pia, dura, or the arachnoid membranes is sure to extend to one or both of the others, and the consequence in any form is suppuration, abscess, effusion into the ventricles, and softening of cerebral tissue if brain is involved.
p., spinal. Inflammation of the dura of the spinal cord.
Paget, Sir James (paj'et). British surgeon, 1814-1899.
P.'s disease. Skeletal disease of the elderly with chronic inflammation of bones, resulting in thickening and softening of bones, and bowing of long bones. SYN: osteitis deformans.
TREAT: Asymptomatic cases should not be treated. There is no specific curative therapy, but vitamin D three times a week and anabolic hormones may be of help in treating osteoporosis. Calcitonin, etidronate disodium, and mithramycin have been used to control resorption of bone and thus are of assistance in alleviating bone pain.
pain (pan) [L. poena, a fine, a penalty]. The International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as the sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage. Thus, pain includes not only the perception of an uncomfortable stimulus but also the response to that perception. Approximately one-half of the persons who seek medical help do so because of the primary complaint of pain.
Experiencing pain is influenced by a great number of interacting physical, mental, biochemical, physiologic, psychologic, social, cultural, and emotional factors. All of these interactions are dynamic and constantly changing. Thus, the pain that is perceived to be of a certain intensity at one time may, at another time, be perceived as being either less or more intense, even though all other factors appear to be the same.
Acute pain is to be distinguished from chronic pain. Acute pain warns the patient that something is wrong, but persistent acute pain may interfere with the healing and recovery process. Thus, the pain of myocardial infarction or postoperative pain may cause a series of reflexes that prevent optimum function of the heart and lungs as well as other essential body systems.
The signs of pain include increased heart rate and output, increased blood pressure, pupillary dilatation, palmar sweating, hyperventilation, hypermotility, escape behavior, and anxiety state.
Acute pain is managed by diagnosing the underlying cause and attempting to remove it or decrease its intensity; use of drugs appropriate for the severity and type of pain; use of noninvasive measures such as application of heat, cold, manipulation, or splint; transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (T.E.N.S.), relaxation therapy; and biofeedback to attempt to prevent the development of chronic pain at this stage.
In treating pain it is not unusual for analgesics to be administered in accordance with the time specified to have elapsed between doses. This practice is neither humane nor merciful. It stems from an obsession with the possibility of causing addiction to the drug. Investigators have reported that creation of physical dependence requires the regular routine administration of therapeutic doses of narcotics four to six times a day for six weeks. Also, the incidence of addiction has been found to be one per 4000 hospitalized patients who have received narcotics.
When pain persists beyond the expected time required for healing of an injury or after the expected course of an acute disease, it is considered to be chronic. There is no evidence that most chronic pain stems from an apparent or treatable cause. For this reason chronic pain is considered to be a separate disease entity.
With respect to chronic intractable pain, however, there are known causes, including carcinomatosis; invasion or compression syndromes due to cancer; mental illness; neurologic disorders such as neuralgias, phantom limb pain, nerve entrapment syndromes, spinal cord damage, myofascial syndromes, or thalamic syndrome pain. The signs of chronic pain include sleep disturbance, irritability, appetite disturbance, constipation, psychomotor retardation, decreased pain tolerance, social withdrawal, and mental depression. The management of chronic pain is similar to that given for acute pain but the goal is to decrease the use of analgesics; encourage the patient concerning eventual success of therapy, but at the same time set realistic therapeutic goals and inform the patient that he or she and the treating physician should be prepared to accept the possibility that some pain is likely to continue.
Pain is a subjective phenomenon and only the individual experiencing it can know its characteristics. When using prescribed medications for relief, remember the time lag before they become effective.
p., aching. Generalized aching that may accompany infectious disease such as influenza, smallpox, or rheumatic fever. It is also found in myalgia and various headaches.
p.,acute. A short, sharp, cutting pain. Usually associated with acute inflammation or inflammation of serous membranes as in pleurisy and pericarditis; also posterior spinal-root pains. SYN: p., lancinating.
p., agonizing. Intense, torturing pain of mind or body. May be due to coronary thrombosis, angina pectoris, aortic aneurysm, mediastinitis. May occur in milder form in asthma, tracheobronchitis, or it may be due to referred pain from gallbladder, intestinal obstruction, diaphragmatic hernia, pancreatitis, or a perforated ulcer.
p., boring. Pain deep in tissues that give the sensation of being produced by a boring instrument.
p., Brodie "s. Pain caused near a joint a infected with neuralgia when the skin is folded near it.
p., causalgic. Spontaneous pain, esp burning in character, when associated with anesthesia or hyperesthesia in a giver nerve. SYN: causalgia.
p., central. Pain due to a lesion in the central nervous system.
p., chronic. The persistence of pain beyond the usual or expected course of an acute disease or after a reasonable time for an injury to heal has elapsed.
p., chronic intractable. Chronic pain due to a known cause, such as malignancy, mental illness, or a neurological disorder.
p., cramplike. Muscular spasm such as epigastric pain. Significance depends upon location of pain. Menstrual pain is often cramplike.
p., dull. Continuous mild throbbing,
p., eccentric. Pain occurring in peripheral structures due to a lesion involving posterior roots of spinal nerves.
p., girdle, Pain resembling sensation of a constricting cord around the waist, occurring in spinal cord disease.
's. growing. Pains felt in the joints or limbs of growing children; may be rheumatic an imprecise term indicating ill-defined pains in the muscular system of young persons. There is no evidence that the pains are related to rapid growth.
homotopic. Pain felt at the point of injury.
p., intractable. Pain that cannot be easily relieved, as that occurring from certain neoplastic invasions.
p., lancinating. A short, sharp, cutting pain. SYN: p., acute.
p., mobile. Pain that moves from one area to another.
p., movement. Kinesalgia,
p., neuralgic. Pain, frequently paroxysmal, occurring along the branches of a nerve. Temporarily relieved by heat or pressure. May be rheumatic in origin.
p., night. Pain in hip or knee during muscular relaxation in sleep.
p., noise. Pain of ear caused by noise. SYN: odynacuses.
p., objective. Pain induced by some external or internal irritant, by inflammation, or by injury to nerves, organs, or other tissues that interferes with the function, nutrition, or circulation of the affected part. Usually traceable to a definite pathological process.
p., organic. Pain due to organic causes.
p., osteocopic. Pain in bones.
p., parenchymatous. Pain felt at the peripheral end of a nerve.
p., paresthasic. Stinging or tingling sensation manifested in central and peripheral nerve lesions.
p., phantom limb. Pain that seems to be in a certain limb following amputation of that limb.
p., pseudomyelic. False sensation of movement in a paralyzed limb or of no movement in a moving limb. Not a true pain.
p., referred Pain seeming to arise in an area other than its origin, as pain from appendicitis, which often seems to occur in areas other than that of the appendix.
p., remittent. Pain with temporary abatements in severity. Characteristic of neuralgia and colic.
p., rest. Pain due to ischemia that comes on when sitting or lying.
p., shifting. Pain that seems to arise from different sites from time to time. Present in rheumatism, hysteria, and locomotor ataxia.
p.'s, starting. Pains accompanied by muscular spasm during early stages of sleep.
p., subjective. Pain with no apparent physical basis for its existence. It maybe. found among the highly imaginative neurotics in whom mild sensations are perceived as pain.
p.,thoracic. Sharp pain over the sternum, primarily in the chest or thoracic region, often running down the arm to the elbow. Maybe indicative of angina pectoris although it must not be confused with pain from gastric pressure in the region of the heart, caused by an accumulation of gas. It is increased with respiration. It is experienced in broken ribs; intercostal neuralgia wounds; herpes zoster; pleurisy; pleurodynia; myalgia; periostitis; acute peritonitis; colic; hepatic, gastric, or renal ulcer, gallbladder disorders; carcinoma in late stages; and gumma of this region.
p., wandering. Pain that changes its location repeatedly.
palsy (pawl'ze) [ME. palesie, from L. paraly-sis]. Temporary or permanent loss of sensation or loss of ability to move or to control movement. SYN: paralysis.
p., Bell's. Paralysis of the facial nerve in its peripheral distribution. Muscles of unaffected side of face pull the face into a distorted position.
p., night. Form of paresthesia in which numbness is a symptom, esp. at night.
p., progressive supranuclear. Chronic progressive degenerative disease of the cens system that has its onset in middle age. There are conjugate ocular palsies, dystonia of the neck, and widespread rigidity.
p., Saturday night, Paralysis, musculospiral,
p., shaking. Progressive muscular weakness and tremor with impaired voluntary motion. SYN: paralysis agitans; Parkinsons's disease.
p., wasting. Chronic condition in which there are atrophy and paralysis of muscles; grows progressively worse. SYN: progressive muscular atrophy.
paralysis (pa-ral'i-sis) [Gr. paralyein, to disable]. (pl. paralyses) Temporary suspension or permanent loss of function, esp. loss of sensation or voluntary motion.
Any voluntary movement depends on the integrity of two motor neurons: one, the upper motor neuron, arising in the motor cortex, coursing across the brain stem, and ending in the anterior gray horn of the spinal cord; and the lower neurons, arising in the anterior horn cell and passing to the muscle. If the latter are destroyed, the muscle loses tone, atrophies (withers away), and shows reaction of degeneration (RD).
The flaccidity and absent muscular reflexes reveal the loss of tonus. If the upper neuron is paralyzed, the patient is equally unable to move the affected part, but the intact lower neuron may permit other motor centers to act on the muscle. In addition, tone is increased, there is no RD, and no atrophy except that of disuse. So-called pathological reflexes may appear in addition to the increase of normal deep reflexes.
Paralyses are divided into two groups: spastic when due to lesion of upper motor neuron and flaccid when due to lesion of lower motor neuron. Psychic inhibition of motor function occurs most characteristically in hysteria, but the evidence of organic disease is always lacking in these hysterical paralyses.
p., acute ascending spinal. An acute type of paralysis that may be caused by a number of diseases. The flaccid paralysis starts in the lower part of the body and progresses to the trunk, arms, and muscles of respiration.
p., ascending. Paralysis beginning with the lower limbs and progressing upward.
p., atrophic spinal. Paralysis caused by acute poliomyelitis.
p., Bell's. Facial paralysis.
p., central. Any paralysis from a lesion of the brain or spinal cord.
p., Jamaica ginger. Paralysis due to polyneuropathy that affects the muscles of the distal portions of the limbs. It is caused by drinking an alcoholic beverage called Jamaica ginger that contains the toxic substance triorthocresylphosphate.
p., Klumpke "s. Wasting paralysis of the arms and hands; often resulting from birth injury.
p., Landry"s. Flaccid paralysis that begins in the lower extremities and rapidly ascends to the trunk. SYN: p., Kussmaul's.
p., local. Paralysis of a single muscle or one group of muscles.
p., mixed. Paralysis of motor and sensory nerves.
p., muscular. Loss of the capacity of muscles to contract. May be due to a structural disorder in the muscle at the myoneural junction, in efferent nerve fibers, in cell bodies of nuclei of origin of brain or gray matter of spinal cord, in conducting pathways of brain or spinal cord, or in motor centers of the brain.
p., musculospiral. Paralysis due to prolonged ischemia of the musculospiral nerve incident to compressing an arm against a hard edge. It occurs if the patient has been comatose or in a stupor or has fallen asleep with the arm hanging over the edge of a bed or chair. Sometimes called Saturday night paralysis because in some cultures individuals traditionally become intoxicated on Saturday night; while stuporous, they may remain in a position that allows the nerve to be compressed.
p., Saturday night. P., musculospiral.
p., sensory. Loss of sensation. May be due to a structural or functional disorder of the sensory end organs, sensory nerves, conducting pathways of spinal cord or brain, or sensory centers in the brain.
p., spastic. Paralysis usually involving groups of muscles. Characterized by excessive tone and spasticity of muscles, exaggeration of tendon reflexes but loss of superficial reflexes, positive Babinski response, no atrophy or wasting except from prolonged disuse, and absence of reaction of degeneration. Due to lesions of upper motor neurons or cerebrum.
p., spinal. Paralysis due to injury or disease of the spinal cord.
p., wasting. Progressive wasting away of the muscles. SYN: atrophy, progressive muscular.
parasympathetic (par"a-sim"pa-thet'ik) [" + sympathetikos, sympathetic nerve]. Of or pert. to the craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system.
parasympathetic nervous system. The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. Preganglionic fibers originate from nuclei in the midbrain, medulla, and sacral portion of the spinal cord. They pass through the 3rd, 7th, 9th, and 10th cranial nerves and the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sacral nerves, and synapse with postganglionic neurons located in autonomic (terminal) ganglia that lie in the walls of or near the organ innervated.
Some effects of parasympathetic stimulation are constriction of pupil, contraction of smooth muscle of alimentary canal, constriction of bronchioles, slowing of heart rate, and increased secretion by glands, except sweat glands. Parasympathetic effects are specific rather than general. SEE: autonomic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system.
parasympathicotonia (par"a-sim-path"iko-to'ne-a) [" + sympathetikos, sympathetic nerve, + tonos, tension). Condition in which there is an imbalance in functioning of the autonomic nervous system, the parasympathetic division dominat-ing over the sympathetic. SYN: uagotonia.
parasympatholytic (par"a-sim"pa-tho-lit' ik) [" + " + lytikos, dissolving]. Having a destructive effect on or blocking parasympathetic nerve fibers.
parasympathomimetic (par"a-sim"pa-thomim-et'ik) [" + " + mimetikos, imitative. Producing effects similar to those resulting from stimulation of parasympathetic nervous system.
paresthesia (par"ea-the'ze-a) [" + aisthesis, sensation]. Sensation of numbness, prickling, or tingling; heightened sensitivity. Experienced in central and peripheral nerve lesions and in locomotor ataxia.
p., Berger"s. Paresthesia of the legs that occurs in young people.
Parkinson, James. British physician, 1755-1824.
P.'s disease. A chronic nervous disease characterized by a fine, slowly spreading tremor, muscular weakness and rigidity, and a peculiar gait. SYN: paralysis agitans; shaking palsy.
SYM: Onset may be abrupt; generally insidious. First symptom is a fine tremor beginning in hand or foot that may spread until it involves all the members. At first paroxysmal but becomes almost continuous. Face becomes expressionless. Speech slow and measured, later muscular rigidity. Head bowed, body bent forward, arms flexed, thumbs turned into palms, knees slightly bent. Gait characteristic by this time; steps grow faster and faster, body inclines more and more forward until patient falls, seeks some support; this is termed festination. Occasionally a tendency to fall backwards, retropulsion, replaces festination. Numbness, tingling, and sensation of heat may be present.lus medicines to combat muscle rigidity and lethargy. Drugs used include levodopa, levodopa and carbidopa, amantadine hydrochloride, and anticholinergics.
PROG: Recovery rarely if ever occurs. Duration indefinite.
parkinsonism (par'kin-son-izm"). Parkinson,'s disease.